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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Alternative Composite Materials for Megawatt-Scale Wind Turbine Blades: Design Considerations and Recommended Testing

[+] Author and Article Information
Dayton A. Griffin

Global Energy Concepts, LLC, 5729 Lakeview Drive NE, Suite 100, Kirkland, WA 98033

Thomas D. Ashwill

Wind Energy Technology Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0708

J. Sol. Energy Eng 125(4), 515-521 (Nov 26, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1629750 History: Received February 27, 2003; Revised July 14, 2003; Online November 26, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

BTM Consult ApS., 2001, A Towering Performance−Latest BTM Report on the Wind Industry, Renewable Energy World, July-August 2001, p.p. 69–87, James & James (Science Publishers Ltd.), London, U.K.
Dutton, A.G., et al., 1999, Design Concepts for Sectional Wind Turbine Blades, Proceedings of the 1999 European Wind Energy Conference, Nice, France. pp. 285–288.
Joosse, P.A., et al., 2000, Economic Use of Carbon Fibres in Large Wind Turbine Blades, Proceedings of AIAA/ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV.
Joosse, P.A., et al., (July 2–6, 2001). Toward Cost Effective Large Turbine Components with Carbon Fibers. Presented at the 2001 European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Joosse, P.A., et al., (July 2–6, 2001). Fatigue Properties of Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Material. Presented at the 2001 European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Joosse, P.A., et al., 2002, Toward Cost Effective Large Turbine Components with Carbon Fibers. Proceedings of AIAA/ASME Wind Energy Symposium. Reno, NV.
Griffin, D.A. 2001, WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 1-Composite Blades for 80- to 120-Meter Rotor. NREL/SR-500-29492. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Smith, K., 2001, WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 2-Turbine, Rotor and Blade Logistics. NREL/SR-500-29439. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Vandenbosche, J., 2001, WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 3-Self-Erecting Tower Structures. NREL/SR-500-29493. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Malcolm, D., Hansen, C., 2001, Results from the WindPACT Rotor Design Study. Proceedings Windpower 2001, American Wind Energy Association, Washington, DC.
Malcolm, D.J. and Hansen, A.C., 2002, Lessons from the WindPACT Rotor Design Study. Poster presentation at WindPower2002. American Wind Energy Association, Portland, OR.
Griffin, D.A., 2002, Blade System Design Studies Volume I: Composite Technologies for Large Wind Turbine Blades. SAND2002-1879. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.
Laird, D.L., 2001, 2001: A Numerical Manufacturing and Design Tool Odyssey. Proceedings of AIAA/ASME Wind Energy Symposium. Reno, NV.
Mandell, J.F., Samborsky, D.D., and Wang, L., 2003, New Fatigue Data for Wind Turbine Blade Materials. Proceedings of AIAA/ASME Wind Energy Symposium. Reno, NV.
Service, D., 2001, PAN Carbon Fibre Precursor. Proceedings of Intertech’s Carbon Fiber 2001, Bordeaux, France.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 1999, IEC 61400-1: Wind Turbine Generator Systems-Part 1: Safety Requirements, 2nd edition. International Standard 1400-1.
Germanischer, Lloyd, 1999, Rules and Regulations IV-Non-Marine Technology, Part 1-Wind Energy, Regulation for the Certification of Wind Energy Conversion Systems.
Mandell, J.F., Samborsky, D.D., 1997, DOE/MSU Composite Material Fatigue Database: Test Methods, Materials and Analysis. SAND97-3002. Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, NM.
Griffin, D.A., 2003, (draft), Blade System Design Studies Volume II: Preliminary Blade Designs and Recommended Test Matrix, (in Publication), Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Figures

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WindPACT studies concerning composite blade design and manufacture
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Architecture of baseline structural model
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Gravity moments and carbon usage
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Effect of carbon spanwise extent on root bending moments
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Effect of carbon spar spanwise extent on blade tip deflections
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Example candidate fiberglass-to-carbon spar transition
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Schematic of candidate test for biased tube in combined axial/torsional loading

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