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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Disturbance Tracking Control and Blade Load Mitigation for Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Karl A. Stol

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401-3393e-mail: karl_stol@nrel.gov

J. Sol. Energy Eng 125(4), 396-401 (Nov 26, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1628678 History: Received March 03, 2003; Revised June 30, 2003; Online November 26, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Muljadi, E., Butterfield, C. P., and Migliore, P., 1996, “Variable-Speed Operation of Generators with Rotor-Speed Feedback in Wind Power Applications,” Proc. 15th ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Houston, TX.
Ekelund,  T., 2000, “Yaw control for reduction of structural dynamic loads in wind turbines,” J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., Elseiver Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands, 85, pp. 241–262.
Bossanyi,  E. A., 2000, “The Design of Closed Loop Controllers for Wind Turbines,” J. Wind Energy, Wiley and Sons 3, pp. 149–163.
Liebst,  B. S., 1983, “Pitch Control for Large-Scale Wind Turbines,” J. Energy, 7, pp. 182–192.
Balas, M. J., Lee, Y. J., and Kendall, L., 1998, “Disturbance Tracking Control Theory with Application to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines,” Proc. 17th ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, pp. 95–99.
Allen, S., Balas, M. J., and Counts, L, 1999, “A Multi-Controller Approach to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines,” Proc. 18th ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, pp. 77–86.
Stol, K. and Bir, G., 2003, “User’s Guide for SymDyn, version 1.1,” http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/symdyn/symdyn.pdf, accessed February 24, 2003.
Stol, K., 2001, “Dynamics Modeling and Periodic Control of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO.
Laino, D. J. and Hansen, A. C., 2002, “User’s Guide to the Wind Turbine Aerodynamics Computer Software AeroDyn,” Version 12.50, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/aerodyn/aerodyn.pdf, accessed February 24, 2003.
Wiberg, D. M., 1971, State Space and Linear Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Kwakernaak, H. and Sivan, R., 1972, Linear Optimal Control Systems, Wiley Interscience, NY.
Buhl Jr, M. L., 2001, “SNwind User’s Guide,” http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/snwind/snwind.pdf, accessed August 15, 2002.
Downing,  S. D., and Socie,  D. F., 1982, “Simple Rainflow Counting Algorithms,” Int. J. Fatigue, 4-1, pp. 31–34.
Miner,  A. A., 1945, “Cumulative Damage in Fatigue,” Trans. ASME, 67, p. A159.
Fingersh, L. J. and Carlin, P. W., 1998, “Results from the NREL Variable-Speed Test Bed,” Proc. 17th ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, pp. 233–237.

Figures

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Simulink® block diagram for the closed-loop system.
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Hub-height wind speed input for simulation.
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Comparison of state-space designs. Solid line is a linear fit to the data.
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Generator torque commands for the state-space design with maximum power.
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Rotor speed response for the state-space design with maximum power.
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Wind speed estimator performance for the state-space design with maximum power.
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Blade #1 flap bending moment response for the state-space design with minimum fatigue.
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Individual blade pitch commands for the state-space design with minimum fatigue.
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Tower base fore-aft moment response for the state-space design with minimum fatigue.
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CART model degrees-of-freedom and control inputs.

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