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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Periodic Disturbance Accommodating Control for Blade Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Karl A. Stol

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401e-mail: karl_stol@nrel.gov

Mark J. Balas

Department of Aerospace Engineering Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309e-mail: mark.balas@colorado.edu

J. Sol. Energy Eng 125(4), 379-385 (Nov 26, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1621672 History: Received May 08, 2002; Revised June 26, 2003; Online November 26, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Johnson, C. D., 1976, “Theory of Disturbance Accommodating Controllers,” Advances in Control and Dynamic Systems, 12 , ed. C. T. Leondes.
Kendall,  L., Balas,  M., Lee,  Y. J., and Fingersh,  L. J., 1997, “Application of Proportional-Integral and Disturbance Accommodating Control of Variable Speed Variable Pitch Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines,” Wind Eng., 21, pp. 21–38.
Stol, K., Rigney, B., and Balas, M., 2000, “Disturbance Accommodating Control of a Variable-Speed Turbine Using a Symbolic Dynamics Structural Model,” Proc. 19th ASME Wind Energy Symp., Reno, NV, pp. 84–90.
Wright, A. D., and Balas, M. J., 2003, “Design of Modern Controls for the Controlled Advanced Research Turbine (CART),” Proc. 22nd ASME Wind Energy Symp., Reno, NV, pp. 304–316.
McKillip, R., 1984, “Periodic Control of the Individual-Blade-Control Helicopter Rotor,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Jensen, K. E., Fahroo, F., and Ross, I. M., 1998, “Application of Optimal Periodic Control Theory to the Orbit Reboost Problem,” Proc. AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Univelt, Inc., San Diego, CA, pp. 935–945.
Liebst,  B. S., 1983, “Pitch Control for Large-Scale Wind Turbines,” J. Energy, 7, pp. 182–192.
Ekelund,  T., 2000, “Yaw Control for Reduction of Structural Dynamic Loads in Wind Turbines,” J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 85, pp. 241–262, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Stol,  K., and Balas,  M., 2001, “Full-State Feedback Control of a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine: A Comparison of Periodic and Constant Gains,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 123(4), pp. 319–326.
Stol, K., and Bir, G., 2003, “User’s Guide for SymDyn, version 1.1,” http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/symdyn/symdyn.pdf, accessed February 24.
Stol, K., 2001, “Dynamics Modeling and Periodic Control of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO.
Hansen, A. C., 1996, Users Guide to the Wind Turbine Dynamics Computer Programs YawDyn and AeroDyn for ADAMS, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Bittanti, S., Laub, A. J., and Willems, J. C. (eds.), 1991, The Riccati Equation, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 127–162.
Kwakernaak, H., and Sivan, R., 1972, Linear Optimal Control Systems, Wiley Interscience, New York.
Stol, K., and Balas, M., 2002, “Periodic Disturbance Accommodating Control for Speed Regulation of Wind Turbines,” Proc. 21st AIAA/ASME Wind Energy Symp., Reno, NV, pp. 310–320.

Figures

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Blade flap steady-state solution for linearization
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Blade-bending loads with full-state feedback control
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Wind speed input (solid line) with wind estimate (dotted line) for the periodic DAC controller
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Simulation block diagram for the implementation of periodic DAC in Simulink®
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Schematic of the four DOFs SymDyn model
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Components of the periodic full-state feedback gain, G(t), for blade one pitch
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Components of the disturbance gain, Gd(t). Solid line: blade one pitch, dashed line: blade two pitch.
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Blade one pitch commands with disturbance accommodating control
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Hub-height horizontal wind speed input
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Blade one pitch commands with full-state feedback control
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Blade-bending loads with disturbance accommodating control

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