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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Controls and Diagnostics for Air Distribution Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
John M. House

Iowa Energy Center, Energy Resource Station, DMACC, 2006 S. Ankeny Blvd., Ankeny, IA 50021e-mail: jhouse@energy.iastate.edu

Kwangduk Douglas Lee

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., #10-007, Cambridge, MA 02139e-mail: douglee@mit.edu

Leslie K. Norford

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Planning, Department of Architecture, 77 Massachusetts Ave., #5-418D, Cambridge, MA 02139-4301e-mail: lnorford@mit.edu

J. Sol. Energy Eng 125(3), 310-317 (Aug 04, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1592185 History: Received December 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online August 04, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Building Technology, State and Community Programs, 1999, 1999 BTS Core Databook, Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs, Washington, D.C., Table 1.1.2: 1-1.
Ardehali, M. M., Smith, T. F., House, J. M., and Klaassen, C. J., 2003, “Building Energy Use and Control Problems: An Assessment of Case Studies,” ASHRAE Trans., (accepted for publication).
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Seem,  J. E., 1998, “A New Pattern Recognition Adaptive Controller With Application to HVAC Systems,” Automatica, 34(8), pp. 969–982.
House,  J. M., Vaezi-Nejad,  H., and Whitcomb,  J. M., 2001, “An Expert Rule Set for Fault Detection in Air-Handling Units,” ASHRAE Trans., 107(1), pp. 858–871.
Comstock, M. C., Chen, B., and Braun, J. E, 1999, “Literature Review for Applications of Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods to Vapor Compression Cooling Equipment,” Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, HL 99-19: Report #4036-2, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN.
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Salsbury, T. I., 1996, “Fault Detection and Diagnosis in HVAC Systems Using Analytical Models,” Ph.D. thesis, Loughborough Univ., Loughborough, UK.
Dexter,  A. L., and Benouarets,  M., 1996, “A Generic Approach to Identifying Faults in HVAC Plants,” ASHRAE Trans., 102(1), pp. 550–556.
Glass, A. S., Gruber, P., Roos, M., and Tödtli, J., 1994, “Preliminary Evaluation of a Qualitative Model-Based Fault Detector for a Central Air-handling Unit,” Proc. of 3rd IEEE Conf. on Control Applications, Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow, Scotland.
Peitsman,  H. C., and Bakker,  V. E., 1996, “Application of Black-Box Models to HVAC Systems for Fault Detection,” ASHRAE Trans., 102(1), pp. 628–640.
Yoshida,  H., Iwami,  T., Yuzawa,  H., and Susuki,  M., 1996, “Typical Faults of Air-Conditioning Systems and Fault Detection by ARX Model and Extended Kalman Filter,” ASHRAE Trans., 102(1), pp. 557–564.
Lee,  W. Y., Park,  C., and Kelly,  G. E., 1996, “Fault Detection of an Air-Handling Unit Using Residual and Parameter Identification Methods,” ASHRAE Trans., 102(1), pp. 528–539.
Lee,  W. Y., House,  J. M., Park,  C., and Kelly,  G. E., 1996, “Fault Diagnosis of an Air-Handling Unit Using Artificial Neural Networks,” ASHRAE Trans., 102(1), pp. 540–549.
Lee,  W. Y., House,  J. M., and Shin,  D. R., 1997, “Fault Diagnosis and Temperature Sensor Recovery for an Air-Handling Unit,” ASHRAE Trans., 103(1), pp. 621–633.
House,  J. M., Lee,  W. Y., and Shin,  D. R., 1999, “Classification Techniques for Fault Diagnosis of an Air-Handling Unit,” ASHRAE Trans., 105(1), pp. 1087–1097.
Norford,  L. K., Wright,  J. A., Buswell,  R. A., Luo,  D., Klaassen,  C., and Suby,  A., 2002, “Demonstration of Fault Detection and Diagnosis Methods for Air-Handling Units (ASHRAE 1020-RP),” Int. J. of HVAC&R Research, 8(1), pp. 41–72.
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Katipamula,  S., Pratt,  R. G., Chassin,  D. P., Taylor,  Z. T., Gowri,  K., and Brambley,  M. R., 1999, “Automated Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Outdoor-air Ventilation Systems and Economizers: Methodology and Results from Field Testing,” ASHRAE Trans., 105(1), pp. 555–567.
Seem, J. E., House, J. M., and Monroe, R. H., 1997, “On-line Monitoring and Fault Detection of Control System Performance,” Proc. of CLIMA 2000, Brussels, Belgium.
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Schein,  J., and House,  J. M., 2003, “Application of Control Charts for Detecting Faults in Variable-Air-Volume Boxes,” ASHRAE Trans. (accepted).
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Shaw,  S. R., Norford,  L. K., Luo,  D., and Leeb,  S. B., 2002, “Detection of HVAC Faults via Electrical Load Monitoring,” Int. J. of HVAC&R Research, 8(1), pp. 13–40.
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Englander,  S. L., and Norford,  L. K., 1992, “Saving Fan Energy in VAV Systems, Part 2: Supply Fan Control for Static Pressure Minimization Using DDC Zone Feedback,” ASHRAE Trans., 98(1), pp. 19–32.
Braun, J. E., Lawrence, T. M., Klaassen, C. J., and House, J. M., 2002, “Demonstration of Load Shifting and Peak Load Reduction with Control of Building Thermal Mass,” Proc. of 2002 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C., pp. 3.55–3.67.

Figures

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Schematic of a variable-air-volume system
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Unstable control resulting from an overly aggressive supervisory control strategy
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Supply fan/return fan ramp on in the morning
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Supply fan/return fan low frequency oscillation
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Supply fan/return fan high frequency oscillation
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Third order polynomial fit of the ramp up portion of the supply fan/return fan real power data
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Variations of the supply fan/return fan power and the supply fan frequency
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Correlation of VSD power for a supply fan and a return fan with higher harmonics of apparent power
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Stability of the seventh harmonic of reactive power as a means of tracking VSD power from a central location, during a period in which a chiller and associated pumps and a cooling tower fan are operated. The tower fan causes the periodic power spikes

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