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TECHNICAL PAPERS

An Overview of Optimal Control for Central Cooling Plants with Ice Thermal Energy Storage

[+] Author and Article Information
Gregor P. Henze

Architectural Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1110 S. 67th Street, Peter Kiewit Institute 203D, Omaha, NE 68182-0681e-mail: ghenze@unl.edu

J. Sol. Energy Eng 125(3), 302-309 (Aug 04, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1591801 History: Received September 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online August 04, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

ASHRAE, 1999, Handbook of HVAC Applications, pp. 40.25–40.28.
Rawlings,  L. K., 1985, “Ice Storage System Optimization and Control Strategies,” ASHRAE Trans., 91/1b, pp. 12–22.
Tamblyn,  R. T., 1990, “Optimizing Storage Savings,” Heating/Piping/Air-Conditioning, 62(8), pp. 43–46.
Bahnfleth,  W., and Joyce,  W., 1994, “Energy Use in a District Cooling System With Stratified Chilled Water Storage,” ASHRAE Trans., 100(1), pp. 1767–1778.
Dodier, R. H., and Henze, G. P., 1996, “Statistical Analysis of Neural Networks as Applied to Building Energy Prediction,” Proc. of ASME International Solar Energy Conf., ASME, New York, NY.
Braun,  J. E., 1992, “A Comparison of Chiller-Priority, Storage-Priority, and Optimal Control of an Ice-Storage System,” ASHRAE Trans., 98/1, pp. 893–902.
Gregory, J., and Lin, C., 1992, Constrained Optimization in the Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control Theory, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Bellman, R. E., 1957, Dynamic Programming, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.
Watkins,  C., 1992, “Q-Learning,” Mach. Learn., 8, pp. 279–292.
Akbari, H., and Sezgen, O., 1992, Case Studies of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Systems: Evaluation and Verification of System Performance, LBL-30852, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Univ. of California, Energy and Environment Division.
Drees,  K. H., and Braun,  J. E., 1996, “Development and Evaluation of a Rule-Based Control Strategy for Ice Storage Systems,” International Journal of HVAC&R Research, 2(4), pp. 312–336.
Drees,  K. H., and Braun,  J. E., 1995, “Modeling and Control of Area Constrained Ice Storage Systems,” International Journal of HVAC&R Research, 1(2), pp. 143–159.
Simmonds, P., 1994, “A Comparison of Energy Consumption for Storage Priority and Chiller Priority for Ice-Based Thermal Storage Systems,” ASHRAE Trans., 100/1 .
Meyer, M., and Emery, A. F., 1992, “Optimal Sizing and Control of Ice Storage and Refrigeration Systems in Commercial Buildings,” American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE): Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. 1 , pp. 1.181–1.191.
Spethmann,  D. H., 1989, “Optimal Control for Cool Storage,” ASHRAE Trans., 95/1, pp. 1189–1193.
Knebel, D. E., 1990, “Optimal Control of Ice Harvesting Thermal Energy Storage Systems,” Proc. of 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conf.6 , IECE, New York, pp. 209–214.
Henze,  G. P., Krarti,  M., and Brandemuehl,  M. J., 1997, “A Simulation Environment for the Analysis of Ice Storage Controls,” International Journal of HVAC&R Research, 3(2), pp. 128–148.
Henze,  G. P., Dodier,  R. H., and Krarti,  M., 1997, “Development of a Predictive Optimal Controller for Thermal Energy Storage Systems,” International Journal of HVAC&R Research, 3(3), pp. 233–264.
Henze, G. P., Laguna, M., and Krarti, M., 1995, “Heuristics for the Optimal Control of Thermal Energy Storage,” Proc. of the Metaheuristics Int. Conf. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA.
Krarti, M., Henze, G. P., and Bell, D., 1999, “Planning Horizon for a Predictive Optimal Controller for Thermal Energy Storage Systems,” ASHRAE Trans., 105/1 .
Henze, G. P., and Krarti, M., 1999, “The Impact of Forecasting Uncertainty on the Performance of a Predictive Optimal Controller for Thermal Energy Storage Systems,” ASHRAE Trans., 105/1 .
Henze,  G. P., 2003, “Impact of Real-Time Pricing Rate Uncertainty on the Annual Performance of Cool Storage Systems,” Energy and Buildings , 35(3), pp. 313–325.
Henze, G. P., and Schoenmann, J., 2003, “Evaluation of Reinforcement Learning Control for Thermal Energy Storage Systems,” International Journal of HVAC&R Research, July.

Figures

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Indirect ice production
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Schematic of ice storage system
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Timer-based chiller-priority control
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Reactive storage-priority control using brine return temperature
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Constant-proportion control through constant brine temperature
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Optimal design solution for minimal storage and chiller capacities for two locations; from 14
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Chiller and storage capacity relationships in presence of heat waves; from 14
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Surface plot of ratio of cost with and without ice storage cice/c versus ratio of demand rates rd,1/rd,0 and ratio of energy rates re,1/re,0 for optimal control
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Overview of the predictive optimal control procedure
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Operating cost savings as a function of horizon L for various predictors
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State-of-charge of TES for four-day periods under real-time pricing

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