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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Load Control Using Building Thermal Mass

[+] Author and Article Information
James E. Braun

Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN 47907e-mail: jbraun@ecn.purdue.edu

J. Sol. Energy Eng 125(3), 292-301 (Aug 04, 2003) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1592184 History: Received December 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online August 04, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Topics: Stress
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References

Braun,  J. E., 1990, “Reducing Energy Costs and Peak Electrical Demand Through Optimal Control of Building Thermal Storage,” ASHRAE Trans., 96(2), pp. 876–888.
Snyder,  M. E., and Newell,  T. A., 1990, “Cooling Cost Minimization Using Building Mass for Thermal Storage,” ASHRAE Trans., 96(2), pp. 830–838.
Keeney,  K. R., and Braun,  J. E., 1996, “A Simplified Method for Determining Optimal Cooling Control Strategies for Thermal Storage in Building Mass,” International Journal of Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Research, 2(1), pp. 1–20.
Chen,  T. Y., 2001, “Real-Time Predictive Supervisory Operation of Building Thermal Systems With Thermal Mass,” Energy Build., 33, pp. 141–150.
Nagai, T., 2002, “Optimization Method for Minimizing Annual Energy, Peak Energy Demand, and Annual Energy Cost Through Use of Building Thermal Storage,” ASHRAE Trans., 108 (1).
Rabl,  A., and Norford,  L. K., 1991, “Peak Load Reduction by Preconditioning Buildings at Night,” Int. J. Energy Res., 15, pp. 781–798.
Andresen, I., and Brandemuehl, M. J., 1992, “Heat Storage in Building Thermal Mass: A Parametric Study,” ASHRAE Trans., 98 (1).
Coniff,  J. P., 1991, “Strategies for Reducing Peak Air Conditioning Loads by Using Heat Storage in the Building Structure,” ASHRAE Trans., 97, pp. 704–709.
Morris,  F. B., Braun,  J. E., and Treado,  S. J., 1994, “Experimental and Simulated Performance of Optimal Control of Building Thermal Storage,” ASHRAE Trans., 100(1), pp. 402–414.
Andrews,  J. W., Piraino,  M., and Strasser,  J., 1993, “Laboratory Testing of Control Strategies to Reduce Peak Air-Conditioning Loads,” ASHRAE Trans., 98(1), pp. 910–918.
Braun, J. E., Lawrence, T. M., Klaassen, C. J., and House, J. M., 2002, “Demonstration of Load Shifting and Peak Load Reduction With Control of Building Thermal Mass,” Proc. of 2002 ACEEE Conf. on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Monterey, CA.
Ruud,  M. D., Mitchell,  J. W., and Klein,  S. A., 1990, “Use of Building Thermal Mass to Offset Cooling Loads,” ASHRAE Trans., 96(2), pp. 820–829.
Keeney,  K. R., and Braun,  J. E., 1997, “Application of Building Precooling to Reduce Peak Cooling Requirements,” ASHRAE Trans., 103(1), pp. 463–469.
Braun,  J. E., Montgomery,  K. W., and Chaturvedi,  N., 2001, “Evaluating the Performance of Building Thermal Mass Control Strategies,” International Journal of Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research, 7(4), pp. 403–428.
Chaturvedi,  N., and Braun,  J. E., 2002, “An Inverse Gray-Box Model for Transient Building Load Prediction,” International Journal of Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research, 8(1), pp. 73–100.

Figures

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Daily energy cost savings for optimal versus night setup control: a) 12-hr on-peak period, 2-to-1 on-peak to off-peak electrical rates; b) heavy zone, flat part-load performance, 80°F mean ambient temperature (on-peak period centered at noon, clearness index=0.6, from Braun 1)
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Example daily variations in space temperatures a) and cooling quantities b) for optimal and night setup control (no time-of-day rates, heavy zone with good part-load plant, clearness index=0.6, average ambient temperature=65°F, from Braun 1)
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Daily peak electrical usage reduction for optimal versus night setback control: a) minimum unoccupied setpoint=55°F; b) average ambient temperature=85°F (on-peak period: 8 a.m.–8 p.m., 2-to-1 on-to-off peak rates, light zone with flat part-load, clearness index=0.6, from Braun 1)
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Measured cooling requirements and PMV for minimum energy and night setback control (from Morris et al. 9)
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Measured cooling requirements and PMV for minimum demand and night setback control (from Morris et al. 9)
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Comparison of zone sensible cooling loads for interior, east, south and west zones for Iowa Energy Center tests (from Braun et al. 11)
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Comparison of total sensible cooling loads for Iowa Energy Center tests (from Braun et al. 11)
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Comparison of average zone temperatures for Iowa Energy Center tests (from Braun et al. 11)
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Total coil load for east and west chiller units (from Keeney and Braun 13)
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Measured comfort index under precooling strategy (from Keeney and Braun 13)
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Weekday hourly zone temperature setpoint definitions for a) Night Setup, Light Precool, Moderate, and Extended Precool strategies and b) Night Setup, Maximum Discharge, and Linear Temperature Rise strategies (from Braun et al. 14).
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Regional comparison of the savings potential of different control strategies under different climatic conditions and different utility rate structures (from Braun et al. 14)

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