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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Investigation of a Solar-Thermal Bio-mimetic Metal Hydride Actuator

[+] Author and Article Information
George M. Lloyd

Department of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607e-mail: lloydg@asme.org

Kwang J. Kim

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, NV 89557e-mail: kwangkim@unr.edu

A. Razani

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87106

Mohsen Shahinpoor

AMRI, School of Engineering/School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87122

J. Sol. Energy Eng 125(1), 95-100 (Jan 27, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1531147 History: Received March 01, 2002; Revised August 01, 2002; Online January 27, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Lloyd, G., Kim, K. J., and Razani, A., 1998, “Metal Hydrides for Solar-Thermal Applications,” Proc. of Solar ’98 Conf., Albuquerque, NM, June 15–17, pp. 439–444.
Shahinpoor, M., and Kwang, K. J., 2001, “A Mega-Power Metal Hydride Anthroform Biorobotic Actuator,” Proc. of SPIE-Smart Materials and Structures Conf., Paper No. 4317–18.
Pollack, G., Blyakhman, F., Reitz, F. B., Yakovenko, O., and Dunaway, D., 2001, “Natural Muscles as a Biological System,” Electroactive Polymer Actuators as Artificial Muscles, Y. Bar-Cohen ed., SPIE Press.
Oesterreicher,  H., 1981, “Hydrides of Intermetallic Compounds,” Appl. Phys., 24(170), pp. 169–184.
Wiswall, R., 1978, “Hydrogen Storage in Metals,” Hydrogen in Metals II: Application-Oriented Properties, Springer-Verlag, (205).
Huston,  E. L., and Sandrock,  G. D., 1980, “Engineering Properties of Metal Hydrides,” J. Less-Common Met., 74, pp. 435–443.
Kim,  K. J., Feldman,  K. T., Lloyd,  G., and Razani,  A., 1998, “Compressor-Driven Heat Pump Development Employing Porous Metal Hydride Compacts,” ASHRAE Trans., 104(1), SF-98-18-4.
Ron,  M., and Josephy,  Y., 1989, “Optimization of a Hydrogen Heat Pump,” Z. Phys. Chem., Neue Folge, 164, pp. 1475–1484.
Lloyd,  G., Kim,  K. J., Razani,  A., and Feldman,  K. T., 1998, “Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Metal Hydride Compacts Developed for High Power Reactors,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 12(1), pp. 132–137.
Kapischke,  J., and Hapke,  J., 1994, “Measurement of the Effective Thermal Conductivity of a Metal Hydride Bed with Chemical Reaction,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 9, pp. 337–344.
Shaffer,  L. H., 1958, “Wavelength-Dependent (Selective) Processes for the Utilization of Solar Energy,” Journal of Solar Energy Science and Engineering, 2 (3-4), 21–26.
Siegel, R., and Howell, J. R., 1991, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Third Edition, Hemisphere Publishing Corp.
Spirkl,  W., Ries,  H., Muschaweck,  J., and Timinger,  A., 1997, “Optimized Compact Secondary Reflectors for Parabolic Troughs with Tubular Absorbers,” Sol. Energy, 61(3), pp. 153–158.
Panek,  A., Lee,  Y., and Tanaka,  H., 1996, “Simulation of Solar Radiation Heat Flux Data for Energy Calculation,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 118, pp. 58–63.
Lloyd,  G., Razani,  A., and Feldman,  K. T., 1998, “Transitional Reactor Dynamics Affecting Optimization of a Heat-Driven Metal Hydride Refrigerator,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 41(3), pp. 513–427.
Lloyd, G. M., 1998, “Optimization of Heat and Mass Transfer in Metal Hydride Systems,” Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of New Mexico.

Figures

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Left: Diagram of the basic elements of a solar-thermal metal hydride actuator, (center, right): Prototype actuator (based on LaNi5) being tested
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Equilibrium data and model for the metal hydride LaNi4.3Al0.7
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Van’t Hoff plots for two hydrides suitable for a variety of solar-thermal applications: ΔHLaNi4.3Al0.7=−3.47×107(J/kmoleH2) and ΔSLaNi4.3Al0.7=−1.088×105 (J/kmoleH2⋅K);ΔHMmNi4.15Fe0.85=−2.68×107 (J/kmoleH2) and ΔSMmNi4.15Fe0.85=−1.085×105 (J/kmoleH2⋅K).
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PMH (powder-metal hydride) compacts prior to reactor assembly. Heat and mass transport within these compacts is characterized by the transport parameters K(5×10−15 (m2)),keff(5(W/m⋅K)), and ϕ=0.15.
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Absorption profile of an ideally selective surface.
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Cylindrical reactor with an ideally selective surface undergoing desorption by solar irradiation. (The paper assumes a uniformly irradiated surface for simplicity, and for consistency with the 1-D heat and mass transport formulation.)
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Main figure: Temperature histories in the LaNi4.7Al0.3 reactor, and corrected H2 flow rate, for a solar concentration β=50. (The periodic perturbations are due to zone-by-zone depletion of absorbed hydrogen as the dual desorption fronts progress.) Inset: absorbed hydrogen concentration profiles at 10-s intervals, showing the evolution toward a core ring.
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Corrected flow rate for the three values of β investigated
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Top: time to peak power; Bottom: standard flow rate

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