Natural Convection from a Horizontal Tube Heat Exchanger Immersed in a Tilted Enclosure

[+] Author and Article Information
Wei Liu, Jane H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki, Susan C. Mantell

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church St. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455

J. Sol. Energy Eng 125(1), 67-75 (Jan 27, 2003) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1531146 History: Received January 01, 2002; Revised April 01, 2002; Online January 27, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Arora,  S., Davidson,  J., Burch,  J., and Mantell,  S., 2001, “Thermal Penalty of an Immersed Heat Exchanger in Integral Collector Storage Systems,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 123(3), pp. 180–186.
Liu, W., Davidson, J. H., and Kulacki, F. A., 2001, “Natural Convection from a Single Tube Immersed in a Tilted Thin Enclosure,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Energy Conversion and Application (ICECA’2001), Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology Press, Wuhan, China, 1 , pp. 408–413.
Thornton, J., Arora, S., Davidson, J. H., Burch, J., Christensen, C., and Barker, G., 2000, “Modeling Advances in Low-Cost Integral Collector Storage Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems,” Proc. of SOLAR 2000, Madison, WI, pp. 255–260.
Morgan,  V. T., 1975, “The Overall Convective Heat Transfer from Smooth Circular Cylinders,” Adv. Heat Transfer, 11, pp. 199–264.
Churchill,  S. W., and Chu,  H. H. S., 1975, “Correlating Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Free Convection from a Horizontal Cylinder,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 18, No. 9, pp. 1049–1053.
Lienhard,  J. H., 1973, “On the Commonality of Equations for Natural Convection from Immersed Bodies,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 16(11), pp. 2121–2123.
Arnold,  J. N., Catton,  I., and Edwards,  D., 1976, “Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection in Inclined Rectangular Regions of Differing Aspect Ratios,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 98(1), pp. 67–71.
Hart,  J. E., 1971, “Stability of the Flow in a Differentially Heated Inclined Box,” J. Fluid Mech., 47(3), pp. 547–576.
Catton,  I., Ayyaswamy,  P. S., and Clever,  R. M., 1974, “Natural Convection Flow in a Finite, Rectangular Slot Arbitrarily Oriented with Respect to the Gravity Vector,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 17(2), pp. 173–184.
Ozoe,  H., Sayama,  H., and Churchill,  S. W., 1975, “Natural Convection in an Inclined Rectangular Channel at Various Aspect Ratios and Angles-Experimental Measurements,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 18(12), pp. 1425–1431.
Sundstrom,  L.-G., and Kimura,  S., 1996, “On Laminar Free Convection in Inclined Rectangular Enclosures,” J. Fluid Mech., 313, pp. 343–366.
Canaan,  R. E., and Klein,  D. E., 1996, “An Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer within Horizontal Spent-Fuel Assemblies,” Nucl. Technol., 116(3), pp. 306–318.
Keyhani,  M., and Luo,  L., 1995, “Numerical Study of Convection Heat Transfer within Enclosed Horizontal Rod Bundles,” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 119(2), pp. 116–127.
Keyhani,  M., and Dalton,  T., 1996, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Horizontal Rod-Bundle Enclosures,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118(3), pp. 598–605.
Kuehn,  T. H., and Goldstein,  R. J., 1976, “Correlating Equations for Natural Convection Heat Transfer between Horizontal Circular Cylinders,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 19(10), pp. 1127–1134.
Sparrow,  E. M., and Charmchi,  M., 1983, “Natural Convection Experiments in an Enclosure between Eccentric or Concentric Vertical Cylinders of Different Height and Diameter,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 26(1), pp. 133–143.
Warrington,  R. O., and Crupper,  G., 1981, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer between Cylindrical Tube Bundles and a Cubical Enclosure,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 103, pp. 103–107.
Farrington, R. B., and Bingham C. E., 1986, “Testing and Analysis of Immersed Heat Exchangers,” Solar Energy Research Institute, SERI Report #TR-253-2866.
Farrington, R. B., 1986, “Test Results of Immersed Coil Heat Exchangers and Liquid Storage Tanks Used in the Packaged Systems Program,” Solar Energy Research Institute, SERI Report #TR-254-2841.
Khalillolahi,  A., and Sammakia,  B., 1990, “The Thermal Capacity Effect upon Transient Natural Convection in a Rectangular Cavity,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 112(4), pp. 357–366.
Khalilollahi,  A., and Sammakia,  B., 1986, “Unsteady Natural Convection Generated by a Heated Surface within an Enclosure,” Numer. Heat Transfer, 9(6), pp. 715–730.
Reindl,  D. T., Beckman,  W. A., and Mitchell,  J. W., 1992, “Transient Natural Convection in Enclosures with Application to Solar Thermal Storage Tanks,” Solar Engineering, Proc. of 1992 ASME-JSME-KSES Int. Solar Energy Conf., ASME, Maui, HI, 2 , pp. 1143–1148.
Reindl, D. T., Beckman, W. A., and Mitchell, J. W., 1992, “Transient Natural Convection from a Vertical Flat Plate in a Rectangular Enclosure,” 28th National Heat Transfer Conf. and Exhibition, ASME, 198 , San Diego, CA, pp. 91–98.
Reindl, D. T., 1992, Source Driven Transient Natural Convection in Enclosures, Doctoral Thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.
SYSTAT Version 7.0.1, 1997, SPSS Inc.
Wu, L., and Bannerot, R. B., 1987, “Experimental Study of the Effect of Water Extraction on Thermal Stratification in Storage,” Solar Engineering, Proc. of ASME-JSME-JSES Solar Energy Conf., ASME, Honolulu, HI, 1 , pp. 445–451.


Grahic Jump Location
Proposed integral collector storage solar water heater with an immersed heat exchanger
Grahic Jump Location
Flow in the collector is envisioned as the interaction of small-scale negatively buoyant plumes developed in the heat exchanger boundary layer and a large-scale circulating flow in the core of the storage fluid
Grahic Jump Location
a) Drawing of the enclosure and immersed tube: thermocouples are indicated by solid circles and identified by numbers, dimensions are shown in cm, dimensions for the enclosure are inside dimensions; b) Drawing of the immersed tube that shows the location of the tube within the enclosure and placement of thermocouples along the tube wall: dimensions are in cm; c) Expanded drawing that shows the locations of the thermocouples Nos. 19–25 that measure water temperatures near the tube in the mid y-z plane (x=0), thermocouples Nos. 26 and 27 are located in the tube wall: Dimensions are in cm.
Grahic Jump Location
Water temperatures in the enclosure during discharge in experiment No. 2. Cooling proceeds generally uniformly over the entire enclosure with less than 3.2°C variation over all measurement locations.
Grahic Jump Location
Water temperatures in the top portion of the enclosure over a 30-min interval during experiment No. 2. The points labeled “Enclosure” are the average of the seven thermocouples at x=0,y=5.1 cm, and 25.4 cm≤z≤87.6 cm. These data indicate a cold plume is formed in the boundary layer of the tube.
Grahic Jump Location
Water temperature distributions along the horizontal line in the mid y-z plane (x=0) over a 30-min interval in experiment No. 2. These data indicate that cold water sinking from the tube flows along the rear surface of the enclosure.
Grahic Jump Location
Hourly water temperature distributions in the enclosure during charging in experiment No. 13. The initial state indicated at ‘0 hr’ is isothermal. As energy is added to the enclosure, the storage fluid becomes increasingly stratified.
Grahic Jump Location
Hourly water temperature distributions in discharging experiment No. 4. The mixing in the enclosure decreases stratification as energy is removed.
Grahic Jump Location
Hourly water temperature distributions in discharging experiment No. 5. The initially stratified enclosure is nearly isothermal after 1 hr.
Grahic Jump Location
Water temperatures near the tube over a 30-min interval in the charge/discharge experiment No. 9. Water in the vicinity of the tube becomes stratified very quickly when a heat flux is applied, even with discharging.
Grahic Jump Location
Water temperature distributions in the mid y-z plane (x=0) in the charge/discharge experiment No. 12.
Grahic Jump Location
Nusselt and Rayleigh number data for experiments Nos. 1–12. The dashed lines show the ±15% band of the correlation. Correlations developed by Churchill and Chu 5, Lienhard 6 and Morgan 4 for a horizontal tube in an infinite medium are shown for comparison.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In