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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Identifying and Reducing Scaling Problems in Solar Hot Water Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Derek K. Baker

Humboldt State University, Environmental Resources Engineering Department, 1 Harpst Street, House 18, Arcata, CA 95521e-mail: dkb16@humboldt.edu

Gary C. Vliet

University of Texas at Austin, Mechanical Engineering Department, ETC 5.160, Austin, TX 78712-1063e-mail: gvliet@mail.utexas.edu

J. Sol. Energy Eng 125(1), 61-66 (Jan 27, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1528924 History: Received April 01, 2002; Revised June 01, 2002; Online January 27, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

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Burch, J., Egrican, N., and Carlisle, N., 1990, “Calcium Carbonate Scaling in Solar Hot Water Systems,” Proc., National Solar Energy Conf., Austin, TX, pp. 261–266.
Baker, D., 1996, “Development of Software to Predict Calcium Carbonate Scaling in Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems,” Masters thesis, Univ. of Texas at Austin.
Baker, D., Vliet, G., and Lawler, D., 1996, “SOLSCALE: Software to Predict Scaling in Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems,” Proc., American Solar Energy Society Annual Conf., Asheville, NC, pp. 153–158.
Baker,  D., and Vliet,  G., 2001, “Designing Solar Hot Water Systems for Scaling Environments,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 123(1), pp. 43–47.
Baker, D., 2000, “An Investigation of Calcium Carbonate Scaling Rates Based on Experiments and Modeling,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Texas at Austin.
Baker, D., Vliet G., and Lawler, D., 1999, “Experimental Apparatus to Investigate Calcium Carbonate Scale Growth Rates,” Proc., Mitigation of Heat Exchanger Fouling and Its Economic and Environmental Implications, United Engineering Foundation, Banff, Canada, pp. 435–442.
Hasson, D., 1981, “Precipitation Fouling,” Fouling of Heat Transfer Equipment, E. Somerscales and J. Knudsen, eds., Hemisphere Publishing Corp., pp. 527–568.
Baker, D., Vliet, G., and Lawler, D., 1999, “Comparison of Calcium Carbonate Scaling Rate Models,” Proc., National Heat Transfer Conf., Albuquerque, NM.
Snoeyink, V., and Jenkins, D., 1980, Water Chemistry, John Wiley, New York.
Nielsen,  A., 1984, “Electrolyte Crystal Growth Mechanisms,” J. Cryst. Growth, 67, pp. 289–310.
Stumm, W., and Morgan, J., 1981, Aquatic Chemistry: An Introduction Emphasizing Chemical Equilibrium in Natural Waters, John Wiley, New York.
Hasson,  D., Avriel,  M., Resnick,  W., Rozenman,  T., and Windreich,  S., 1968, “Mechanisms of Calcium Carbonate Scale Deposition on Heat-Transfer Surfaces,” I&EC Fundamentals, 7, pp. 25–34.
Watkinson, A. P., and Martinez, O., 1975, “Scaling of Heat Exchanger Tubes by Calcium Carbonate,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, November, pp. 504–508.
Watkinson, A., 1983, “Water Quality Effects on Fouling from Hard Waters,” Heat Exchangers: Theory and Practice, J. Taborek et al., eds., McGraw Hill, pp. 853–861.
Vliet, G., and Baker, D., 2001, “Identifying and Reducing Scaling in Solar Hot Water Systems,” Report to the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, DE-FG36-94-G010034, Golden, CO.
Lawler, D., 1999, personal communication, Univ. of Texas at Austin.
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 17th ed., 1989, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Incropera, F., and De Witt, D., 1990, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd Edition, John Wiley, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Recommendations for a mild scaling problem (PSP=1.3; i.e., 1≤PSP<2) with Alk=100 mg/L as CaCO3 and [Ca2+] =85 mg/L as CaCO3
Grahic Jump Location
Recommendations for a large scaling problem (PSP=3.5; i.e., 3≤PSP<4) with Alk=160 mg/L as CaCO3 and [Ca2+] =135 mg/L as CaCO3
Grahic Jump Location
General design guidelines for scaling environments screen

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