Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Small Wind Turbine Blades

[+] Author and Article Information
P. A. Joosse

Delft University of Technology, WMC-Group, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlandse-mail: p.a.joosse@citg.tudelft.nl

M. J. Blanch, A. G. Dutton

Energy Research Unit, CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (CLRC-RAL), Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX, UK

D. A. Kouroussis

Envirocoustics Abee, El. Venizelou 7 and Delfon, Metamorphosi, Athens 14452, Attica, Greece

T. P. Philippidis

Dept of Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics, University of Patras, P.O. Box 1401, Patras 265 00, Greece

P. S. Vionis

CRES, Wind Energy Department, 19th km Marathon Avenue, Pikermi 19009, Attica, Greece

J. Sol. Energy Eng 124(4), 446-454 (Nov 08, 2002) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1509769 History: Received March 01, 2002; Revised August 01, 2002; Online November 08, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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IEC 61400-1, 1998, “Wind Turbine Generator Systems-Part 1: Safety Requirements”
IEC 61400-23 TS Ed.1, 1999, “Wind Turbine Generator Systems-Part 23: Full Scale Structural Testing of Rotor Blades for WTGS’s,” Draft.
Beattie, A.G., 1997, “Acoustic Emission Monitoring of a Wind Turbine Blade During the Fatigue Test,” 1997 AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting.
Sutherland, H., Beattie A.G., Hansche, B., Musial, W., Allread, J., Johnson, J., and Summers, M., 1994, “The Application of Non-destructive Techniques to the Testing of a Wind Turbine Blade,” Report SAND93-1380, Sandia National Laboratory.
Vionis, P.S., Anastassopoulos, A.A., Kolovos, V.K., and Kouroussis, D.A., 1999, “Non-Destructive Testing of Full Scale w/t Blade by Means of Acoustic Emission Monitoring During Controlled Static Loading,” Paper PB9.23, Proc. EWEC 1999, E.L. Petersen and P.H. Jensen, (eds), James & James Ltd., London, pp. 691–694.
Dutton, A.G., Blanch, M., Vionis, P., Kolovos, V.K., van Delft, D.R.V., Joosse, P.A., Anastassopoulos, A.A., Kouroussis, D.A., Kossivas, T., Laak, J. ter, Philippidis, T.P., Kolaxis, Y.G., Fernando, G., Zheng, G., Liu, T., and Proust, A., 2000, “Acoustic Emission Monitoring From Wind Turbine Blades Undergoing Static and Fatigue Testing,” Proc. of 15th World Conf. on Non-Destructive Testing, Rome, Italy, http://www.ndt.net/article/wcndt00/papers/idn553/idn533.htm
Pollock, A. A., 1989, “Acoustic Emission Inspection,” Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition, 17 , ASM International, pp. 278–294
ASTM, Section 3, Volume 03.03, Standard E1316-94, “Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations.”
ASTM E07.04.03-98/1 Draft Standard, FRP Pressure Vessels per ASME Code Section V, Article 11.
ASTM, Section 3, Volume 03.03, Standard E976-94, “Standard Guide for Determining the Reproducibility of Acoustic Emission Sensor Response.”
Blanch, M., Kouroussis, D.A, Anastassopoulos, A.A., Nikolaidis, V.N., Proust, A., Dutton, A.G., Jones, L.E., Vionis, P., Lekou, D.J., van Delft, D.R.V., Joosse, P.A., Philippidis, T.P., Kossivas, T., and Fernando, G.F., 2002, “Damage Classification of Acoustic Emission Using Aegis Pattern Recognition Software From Ten Small Wind Turbine Blade Tests,” Proc. of Global Windpower Conf., Paris, France (CD-Rom).


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Definition of the major AE hit characteristics
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AE static certification test load profile
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Inside view of blade 9 (post mortem, leading edge at right side)
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Sketch of the blade root connection
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Instrumentation plan for some of the DUT/RAL tests
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Initial loading of virgin blade 1 to OL and repeat-load profile (top); cumulative AE hits (center-load superimposed); AE signal energy (bottom-load superimposed)
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Non-critical damage at blade root (blade 6, fatigue)
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Comparison of emission levels from 15 kN ELs during the blade 5 static test to failure-load profile (top); hits per channel (center); AE signal energy (bottom)
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AST energy at receiving channel at start of test and after each load-hold cycle (blade 2)
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Crack in blade 5 at 1.7-m radius (see pen and markings)
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Individual channel cumulative AE events versus time, with load superimposed for channel numbers (Ch.#) on blade 1
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Example for static load test envelope to evaluate AE procedures and EL and MTL sensitivity
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Damage progression expressed as linear located events for blade 4; top: during MTL tests, bottom: during EL tests
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Blade 9, fractured in static loading at the defect zone
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Idealized load history of blade 6
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Failed section of blade 6
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Amplitude history of linearly located events during slow cycles for blade 6




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