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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Alternative Fatigue Lifetime Prediction Formulations for Variable-Amplitude Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
R. P. L. Nijssen, D. R. V. van Delft, A. M. van Wingerde

Delft University of Technology, WMC-Group, Delft, The Netherlands

J. Sol. Energy Eng 124(4), 396-403 (Nov 08, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1510524 History: Received March 01, 2002; Revised July 01, 2002; Online November 08, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Morel,  F. 2000, “A Critical Plane Approach for Life Prediction of High Cycle Fatigue Under Multiaxial Variable Amplitude Loading,” Int. J. Fatigue 22, pp. 101–119.
Subramanian,  S., Reifsnider,  K.L., and Stinchcomb,  W.W., 1995, “A Cumulative Damage Model to Predict the Fatigue Life of Composite Laminates Including the Effect of a Fiber-Matrix Interphase,” Int. J. Fatigue, 17, pp. 343–351.
Lee, L.J., Fu, K.E., and Yang, J.N., 1996, “Prediction of Fatigue Damage and Life for Composite Laminates Under Service Loading Spectra,” Composites Science and Technology, 56 , pp. 635–648.
Gamstedt, E.K., and Andersen, S.I., 2001, “Fatigue Degradation and Failure of Rotating Composite Structures – Materials Characterization and Underlying Mechanisms,” Risø Report nr. R-1261, Roskilde, Denmark.
Wahl, N.K., 2001, “Spectrum Fatigue Lifetime and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates,” Ph.D. thesis, Montana State Univ.
Germanischer Lloyd, 1993, Rules and Regulations, IV-Non-Marine Technology, Part I: Wind Energy, Hamburg, Germany.
van Delft, D.R.V., de Winkel, G.D., and Joosse, P.A., 1997, “Fatigue Behavior of Fiberglass Wind Turbine Blade Material Under Variable-Amplitude Loading,” AIAA Wind Energy Symposium, Paper No. AIAA-97-0951.
Echtermeyer, A.T., Kensche, C.W., Bach, P., Poppen, M., Lilholt, H., Andersen, S.I., and Brøndsted, P., 1996, “Method to Predict Fatigue Lifetimes of GRP Wind Turbine Blades and Comparison with Experiments,” Proc. European Wind Energy Conf., pp. 907–913.
Bond, I.P., 1999, “Fatigue Life Prediction for GRP Subjected to Variable Amplitude Loading,” Composites: Part A 30 , pp. 961–970.
de Jonge, J.B., 1983, “The Analysis of Load-Time Histories by Means of Counting Methods,” Subchapter 3.4 of AGARDograph No. 292 Helicopter Fatigue Design Guide, F. Liard (ed.), pp. 91–105.
ten Have, A.A., 1992, “WISPER and WISPERX – Final Definition of Two Standardized Fatigue Loading Sequences for Wind Turbine Blades,” NLR TP 91476 U, NLR, The Netherlands.
ten Have, A.A., 1993, “WISPER and WISPERX - A Summary Paper Describing Their Background, Derivation and Statistics,” 12th ASME Wind Energy Symp., NLR TP 92410 U, National Aerospace Laboratory, The Netherlands.
ten Have, A.A., 1988, “WISPER: A Standardized Fatigue Load Sequence for HAWT-Blades,” Proc. of European Community Wind Energy Conf., pp. 448–452.
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Kensche, C.W. (ed.), 1996, “Fatigue of Materials and Components for Wind Turbine Rotor Blades,” European Commission, Brussels.
Rink, H.D., van Delft, D.R.V., and de Winkel, G.D., 1995, “Fatigue Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester for Wind Turbine Blades, Part 1: Fatigue Behavior at the Very High Cycle Range,” Stevin Report 6-94-30, Delft, The Netherlands.
van Delft, D.R.V., and de Winkel, G.D., 1996, “Fatigue Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester for Wind Turbine Blades, Part 2: Fatigue Behavior Under the WISPER and WISPERX Variable Amplitude Loading,” Stevin Report 6-96-20, Delft, The Netherlands.
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Figures

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Relation between SN-curve and constant life diagram
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WISPER (left) and WISPERX (right) load sequences
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Location of the WISPER cycles in the σmean–σamp-plane
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Dimensions of the test specimen (mm)
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Two-branch SN-curves for WISPER
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Constant amplitude tests at R = 0.1
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Results of lifetime prediction with log-log SN-curve and linear Goodman diagram
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Results of lifetime prediction with lin-log SN-curve and linear Goodman diagram
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Results of lifetime prediction for WISPER using SN-curves from Fig. 5 and linear Goodman diagram
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Steep log-log SN-curves for WISPER (exponent = −7.5) and WISPERX (−8)
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Results of lifetime prediction using steep SN-curves from Fig. 10 and linear Goodman diagram
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Comparison between classical Goodman diagram (continuous lines) and alternative constant-life diagram for a log-log SN-curve
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Results of lifetime prediction for log-log SN-curve and alternative constant-life diagram
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Results of lifetime prediction for lin-log SN-curve and alternative constant-life diagram
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The R = 0.1 SN-curve cannot be predicted by the classical or the alternative constant-life diagram
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Comparison between classical and alternative versions of constant-life diagram with R = 0.1 data
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Results of lifetime prediction with log-log SN-curve and classical constant-life diagram with R = 0.1 data
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Results of lifetime prediction with lin-log SN-curve and classical constant-life diagram with R = 0.1 data
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Results of lifetime prediction with log-log SN-curve and alternative constant-life diagram with R = 0.1 data
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Results of lifetime prediction with lin-log SN-curve and alternative constant-life diagram with R = 0.1 data

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