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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Extreme Gust Loading for Wind Turbines during Operation

[+] Author and Article Information
P. W. Cheng, W. A. A. M. Bierbooms

Institute of Wind Energy, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

J. Sol. Energy Eng 123(4), 356-363 (Jul 01, 2001) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1413218 History: Received April 01, 2001; Revised July 01, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Bierbooms, W., Drag, J. B, and Cleijne, H., 1999, “Verification of the Mean Shape of Extreme Gusts,” Wind Energy, John Wiley.
IEC-TC88, 1997, Safety of Wind Turbine Generator Systems (Draft), IEC.
Efron, B., and Tibshirani, R. J., 1993, An Introduction to the Bootstrap, Chapman and Hall, New York.
Ferguson, M. C. (ed.), Kühn M, Bierbooms W. A. A. M., Cockerill, T. T., Göransson, B., Harland L. A., van Bussel, G. J. W., Vugts, J. H., and Hes, R., 1998, Opti-OWECS Final Report Vol. 4: A Typical Design Solution for an Offshore Wind Energy Conversion System, Institute for Wind Energy, Delft Univ. of Technology Delft.
Zaaijer, M. B., 2000, DUWECS Reference Guide, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft.
Dragt, J. B., and Bierbooms W., 1996, “Modelling of Extreme Gusts for Design Calculations,” Proc. of European Union Wind Energy Conf., H. S. Stephens and Assoc., Göteborg pp. 842–845.
Chaviaropoulos,  P. K., 1997, “Probabilistic Analysis of Extreme Wind Events,” Wind Eng., 21, No. 3, pp. 139–159, Multi-Science.
Bierbooms, W. A. A. M., Cheng, P. W., Larsen, G., and Pedersen, B. J., 2000, “Modelling of Extreme Gusts for Design Calculations-NewGust,” Final Report JOR3-CT98-0239 Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft.
Larsen, G. C., Bierbooms, W. A. A. M., and Hansen, K. S., 1999, “Mean Gust Shapes,” Risø National Laboratory Risø-R-1133(EN), Roskilde.
HTTP://WWW.Winddata.Com
Tromans, P. S., and Vanderschuren, L., 1995, “Response Based Design Method in the North Sea: Application of a New Method,” Proc. of 27th Offshore Technology Conf., Houston.
Cheng, P. W., and Bierbooms, W. A. A. M., 1999, “Statistics of Extreme Loads for Wind Turbines,” Proc. of Int. Conf. of Wind Engineering, Copenhagen.
Bierbooms, W. A. A. M., 2000, SWING4 User Manual, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft.
Cheng, P. W., and van Bussel, G. J. W., 2000, “Extreme Loading of Offshore Wind Turbines using Constrained Simulations,” Proc. of OWEMES Conf., Siracusa.
Harland, L. A., Vugts, J. H., Jonathan, P., and Taylor, P. H., 1996, “Extreme Response of Non-Linear Dynamic Systems using Constrained Simulations,” Conf. of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Florence.
Cartwright, D. E., and Longuet-Higgins, M. S., 1956, “The Statistical Distribution of the Maxima of a Random Function,” Proc. of Royal Society of London, A237 , 212–232.
Bergström, H., 1992, “Distribution of Extreme Wind Speed,” Wind Energy Report WE92:2, Dept. of Meteorology, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala.

Figures

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Stochastic and deterministic wind signals: Solid line is constrained gust, Dashed line is original wind signal, and Dash-dot line is the IEC gust
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Measured (anemometer) and predicted average gust shapes based on 1335 gust observations corresponding to 10-min. mean wind speeds restricted to the range from 9 m/s to 11 m/s
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Estimated (histogram) and predicted (curve) PDF’s of local maxima (normalized by the standard deviation) associated with mean wind speeds in the range from 18 m/s to 19 m/s
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An example of a spatial gust
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Weibull fit of the conditional distributions of the gust response for different gust amplitudes at a mean wind speed of 13 m/s
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Weibull fit of the conditional distributions of the gust response for different gust amplitudes at a mean wind speed of 14 m/s
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Long-term distribution of the gust response distribution function for different periods
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Variation of the distribution parameter m1 of the Weibull distribution for different simulation numbers
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Variation of the distribution parameter m2 of the Weibull distribution for different simulation numbers
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Variation of the distribution parameter k of the Weibull distribution for different simulation numbers
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Variation of the 99 percentile of the Weibull distribution for different simulation numbers
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Distribution of the gust response fitted with different distribution functions conditioned on the gust amplitude of 1.5σ and mean wind speed of 13 m/s (Weibull scale)
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Distribution of the gust response fitted with different distribution functions conditioned on mean wind speed of 13 m/s (Weibull scale)

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