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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Tremper–A Versatile Tool for High-Temperature Chemical Reactivity Studies under Concentrated Solar Radiation

[+] Author and Article Information
Th. Frey, E. Steiner, D. Wuillemin, M. Sturzenegger

Laboratory for High-Temperature Solar Technology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland

J. Sol. Energy Eng 123(2), 147-152 (Dec 01, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1351810 History: Received July 01, 2000; Revised December 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Tofighi,  A., and Sibieude,  F., 1984, “Dissociation of Magnetite in a Solar Furnace for Hydrogen Production. Tentative Production Evaluation of a 1000 kW Concentrator from Small Scale (2 kW) Experimental Results,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 9, pp. 293–296.
Ehrensberger, K., Steiner, E., and Kuhn, P., 1996, “Experimental Studies on the Hydrogen Yield of a Solar Thermochemical 2-Step Cycle with Mixed Iron Oxide Systems,” Proc., 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Stuttgart/Germany, T. N. Veziroglu, et al., pp. 843–848.
Palumbo,  R., Lédé,  J., Boutin,  O. , 1998, “The Production of Zn from ZnO in a High-Temperature Solar Decomposition Quench Process,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 53, pp. 2503–2517.
Steinfeld, A., Kuhn, P., Reller, A., et al., 1996, “Solar-Processed Metals as Clean Energy Carriers and Water-Splitters,” Proc., 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference—Hydrogen Energy Progress XI, Stuttgart/Germany, T. N. Veziroglu, et al., eds., International Association for Hydrogen Energy, pp. 601–609.
Tofighi, A. A., 1982, Ph.D. thesis, “Contribution à l’étude de la decomposition des oxydes de fer au foyer d’un four solaire,” L’institut national polytechnique de Toulouse, Toulouse.
Haueter,  P., Seitz,  T., and Steinfeld,  A., 1999, “A New High-Flux Solar Furnace for High-Temperature Thermochemical Research,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 121, pp. 77–80.
Tschudi,  H. R., and Schubnell,  M., 1999, “Measuring Temperatures in the Presence of External Radiation by Flash Assisted Multiwavelength Pyrometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 70, pp. 2719–2727.
Tschudi, H. R., and Morian, G., “Pyrometric Temperature Measurements in Solar Furnaces,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, submitted.
Barin, I., Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, 3rd Ed., VCH, Weinheim, 1995.
Gaskell, D. R., 1992, An Introduction to Transport Phenomena in Materials Engineering, Macmillan, New York.
Poirier, D. R., and Geiger, G. H., 1994, Tranport Phenomena in Materials Processing, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale, PA.

Figures

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Schematic drawing of the quench unit. For an explanation of the variables see text.
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Experimental setup: FAMP with flash and the two lenses (left), TREMPER (right) and the reference target to measure the flux density (rightmost)
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View of the parabolic concentrator from the sample’s visual focus: 1 upper blocked area, 6%; 2 area seen via the main part of the 45° mirror, 64%; 3 area seen via the quench part (hammer) of the 45° mirror, 25%; 4 lower blocked area, 5%
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Contour plot with flux densities measured in the sample plane (focal plane). Grayish circle in the center represents the sample.
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Temperatures measured simultaneously with FAMP (circles) and the solar-blind pyrometer (solid line) during the reduction of Fe3O4 under nitrogen. Shutter opening and closing time was 1 s, no quenching was applied. Dashed line: effective irradiance.
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Comparison between calculated stagnation temperatures (curves) and temperatures of different samples measured under various flux densities (dots). Details see text.
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Temperature traces for heating and non-forced cooling recorded with the solar-blind pyrometer and calculated temperature curves. Experimental data refer to two nominally identical experiments with Fe2O3 as starting material. Dashed line: solar input.
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Calculated temperature curve for a quenched sample
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MnO content of MnO2 samples reduced under nitrogen (• quenched, ○ not quenched) and under air (▴ quenched, ▵ not quenched) as a function of irradiation time. Results were derived from thermogravimetric reductions in hydrogen.
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Mass spectrometer signals for oxygen (m/z=32) during the reduction of Fe3O4 under nitrogen. The curves result from two experiments with different irradiation times. Dashed lines: effective irradiance.

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