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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Pulsed Gas Feeding for Stoichiometric Operation of a Gas-Solid Vortex Flow Solar Chemical Reactor

[+] Author and Article Information
Stefan Kräupl

Solar Process Technology, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland

Aldo Steinfeld

ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Institute of Energy Technology, ETH-Zentrum, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland

J. Sol. Energy Eng 123(2), 133-137 (Nov 01, 2000) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1351172 History: Received June 01, 2000; Revised November 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Werder,  M., and Steinfeld,  A., 2000, “Life Cycle Assessment of the Conventional and Solarthermal Production of Zinc and Synthesis Gas,” Energy - The Int. J. 25, pp. 395–409.
Steinfeld,  A., Frei,  A., Kuhn,  P., and Wuillemin,  D., 1995, “Solarthermal Production of Zinc and Syngas Via Combined ZnO-Reduction and CH4-Reforming Processes,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 20, No. 10, pp. 793–804.
Steinfeld,  A., Larson,  C., Palumbo,  R., and Foley,  M., 1996, “Thermodynamic Analysis of the Co-Production of Zinc and Synthesis Gas Using Solar Process Heat,” Energy - The Int. J. 21, No. 3, pp. 205–222.
Steinfeld,  A., Brack,  M., Meier,  A., Weidenkaff,  A., and Wuillemin,  D., 1998, “A Solar Chemical Reactor for the Co-Production of Zinc and Synthesis Gas,” Energy - The Int. J. 23, No. 10, pp. 803–814.
Weidenkaff,  A., Brack,  M., Möller,  S., Palumbo,  R., and Steinfeld,  A., 1999, “Solar Thermal Production of Zinc: Program Strategy and Status of Research, in Proc. 9th SolarPACES International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies, Font-Romeu, France; June 22–26, 1998, J. Phys. IV 9, pp. 313–318.
Fletcher,  E. A., and Moen,  R. L., 1977, “Hydrogen and Oxygen From Water,” Science 197, pp. 1050–1056.
Welford, W. T., and Winston, R., 1989, High Collection Nonimaging Optics; Academic Press, San Diego.
Roine, A., 1999, Outokumpu HSC Chemistry for Windows Version 4.0, Outokumpu Research Oy, Pori, Finland.
Gordon, S., McBride, J. B., 1976, Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Composition, Rocket Performance, Incident, and Reflected Shocks, And Chapman-Jouguet Detonations; NASA SP-273, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, (A PC-version devised by T. Kappauf, M. Pipho, and E. Whitby for E. A. Fletcher at Univ. of Minnesota was used in this study.)
Haueter,  P., Seitz,  T., and Steinfeld,  A., 1999, “A New High-Flux Solar Furnace for High-Temperature Thermochemical Research,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 121, pp. 77–80.
National Bureau of Standards, 1985, JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3rd Ed., Washington, D.C.
Barin, I. 1995, Thermochemical Data of Pure Substance, 3rd Ed., VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Germany.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Measured CH4 mass flow rate as a function of the ZnO mass flow rate for representative experiments conducted at PSI solar furnace
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Measured mass flow rate of CH4 as a function of the pulse rate
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Measured average CH4 volume per single pulse as a function of the pulse duration
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Schematic of the reactor set-up. Legend: (1) spiral-type feeder; (2) reactor cavity; (3) primary CH4 inlet; (4) valve for CH4 pulse feeding; (5) programmable logic module; (6) quartz window; (7) secondary CH4 flow for window protection
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Extent of the reduction of ZnO as a function of reactor temperature at 1 bar and for various stoichiometric factors
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Variation of the solar thermal conversion efficiency as a function of the stoichiometric factor for various temperatures and solar flux concentration ratios
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H-T diagram for the reaction ZnO+CH4→Zn+2H2+CO. 1-2: heat ZnO and CH4 from 298 K to 1300 K; 2-3: chemical reaction at 1300 K; 3-4: cool Zn(g), 2H2 and CO to 1180 K; 4-5: phase transformation Zn(g)→Zn(l); 5-6: cool Zn (l), 2H2 and CO to 692 K; 6-7: phase transformation Zn(l)→Zn(s); 7-8: cool Zn(s), 2H2 and CO to 298 K. (Enthalpy reference temperature is 298.15 K)

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