0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Development of a Solar Chemical Reactor for the Direct Thermal Dissociation of Zinc Oxide

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Möller, R. Palumbo

Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland

J. Sol. Energy Eng 123(2), 83-90 (Nov 01, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1349717 History: Received April 01, 2000; Revised November 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Palumbo,  R., Lédé,  J., Boutin,  O., Ricart,  E. E., Steinfeld,  A., Möller,  S., Weidenkaff,  A., Fletcher,  E. A., and Bielicki,  J., 1998, “The production of Zn from ZnO in a high-temperature solar decomposition quench process—I The scientific framework for the process,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 53, pp. 2503–2517.
Fletcher,  E. A., and Noring,  J. E., 1983, “High temperature solar electrothermal processing—zinc from zinc oxide,” Energy (Oxford), 8, pp. 247–254.
Fletcher,  E. A., Macdonald,  F. J., and Kunnerth,  D., 1985, “High temperature solar electrothermal processing II—zinc from zinc oxide,” Energy (Oxford), 10, pp. 1255–1272.
Palumbo,  R., and Fletcher,  E. A., 1988, “High temperature solar electro-thermal processing III. Zinc from zinc oxide at 1200 - 1675 K using a non-consumable anode,” Energy (Oxford), 13, pp. 319–332.
Boutin, O., 1996, “Dissociation Thermique, suive de Trempe, de l’oxyde de zinc,” Diplome d’ Etudes Approfondies, LSGC-ENSIC, Nancy France.
Möller, S., 1996, “Untersuchung der solarthermischen Dissoziation von ZnO zu Zn und O2 in einem Sonnenofen zur Speicherung von Sonnenenergie,” Diplomarbeit, Universität Dortmund.
Steinfeld,  A., Kuhn,  P., Reller,  A., Palumbo,  R., Murray,  J., and Tamaura,  Y., 1998, “Solar-Processed Metals as Clean Energy Carriers and Water-Splitters,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 23, pp. 767–774.
Bilgen,  E., Ducarroir,  M., Foex,  M., Sibieude,  F., and Trombe,  F., 1977, “Use of solar energy for direct and two-step water decomposition cycles,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2, pp. 251–257.
Weidenkaff,  A., Steinfeld,  A., Wokaun,  A., Eichler,  B., and Reller,  A., 1999, “The direct solar thermal dissociation of ZnO: Condensation and Crystallization of Zinc in the Presence of Oxygen,” Sol. Energy 65, pp. 59–69.
Parks,  D. J., School,  K. L., and Fletcher,  E. A., 1988, “A study of the use of Y2O3 doped ZrO2 membranes for solar electrothermal and solar thermal Separations,” Energy (Oxford), 13, pp. 121–136.
Fletcher,  E. A., 1999, “Solarthermal and solar quasi-electrolytic processing and separtions: Zinc from zinc oxide as an example,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 39, pp. 2275–2282.
Haueter,  P., Seitz,  T., and Steinfeld,  A., 1999, “A new high-flux solar furnace for high temperature thermo-chemical research,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 121, pp. 77–80.
Tschudi,  H. R., and Schubnell,  M., 1999, “Measuring temperatures in the presence of external radiation flash assisted multiwavelength pyrometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 70, pp. 2719–2727.
Hirschwald,  W., and Stolze,  F., 1972, “Kinetics of the thermal dissociation of zinc oxide,” Z. Phys. Chem., Neue Folge 77, pp. 21–42.
Touloukian, Y. S., Powell, R. W., Ho, C. Y., and Klemens, P. G., 1970, Thermophysical Properties of Matter: Thermal Conductivity, IFI/Plenum, New York-Washington.
Martin,  L. P., Dadom,  D., Rosen,  M., Birman,  A., Gershon,  D., Calame,  J. P., Levush,  B., and Carmel,  Y., 1996, “Temperature Gradients and Residual Porosity in Microwave Sintered Zinc Oxide,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 430, pp. 579–584.
Barin, I., 1995, Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, 3. Auflage, VCH, Weinheim.
Steinfeld,  A., Brack,  M., Meier,  A., Weidenkaff,  A., and Wuillemin,  D., 1998, “A solar chemical reactor for co-production of zinc and synthesis gas,” Energy (Oxford), 23, pp. 803–814.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the latest design for the entrances of the curtain of gas protecting the window
Grahic Jump Location
Flow patterns for different gas flow conditions; a) circulation near the chimney, which occurs in all experiments. b) the particles draw first backwards at the flow condition 1) 19 lNmin−1, 2) 20 lNmin−1, 3) 28 lNmin−1; c) the particles draw first to the window at the flow condition 1) 20 lNmin−1, 2) 10 lNmin−1, 3) 5 lNmin−1.
Grahic Jump Location
Orientations of the three gas flows
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison between experimental and calculated decomposition mass fluxes depending on q̇solar. The error bars are shown only for the experimental data. It is presumed that there is no error in q̇solar.
Grahic Jump Location
Front view of reactor with an 18 cm aperture window for coupling concentrated sunlight into a chemical process
Grahic Jump Location
Calculated velocity profile in thermally decomposing semi infinite wall of solid ZnO. Values are negative due to defined coordinate system in Fig. 3. The property and input values are indicated in the text.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the model - It is a semi infinite solid of ZnO
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of SLOPE—a solar chemical reactor for the solar thermal decomposition of ZnO. Legend: 1 = reactor chamber; 2 = ZnO-slope; 3 = quartz glass window; 4 = outlet for non-reacted ZnO; 5 = feeding system; 6 = inert gas streams; 7 = chimney for gaseous products
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic representation of the two-step water-splitting cycle using the Zn/ZnO redox system for the solar production of hydrogen
Grahic Jump Location
Calculated temperature profile in thermally decomposing semi infinite wall of solid ZnO for property and input values indicated in the text

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In