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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Design and Performance of Small Scale Solar Powered Water Desalination Systems, Utilizing Reverse Osmosis

[+] Author and Article Information
K. B. França, H. M. Laborde

Universidade Federal da Paraı́ba, Centro de Cie⁁ncias e Tecnologia, Department of Chemical Engineering, Campina Grande 58109-970, Pb, Brazil

H. Neff

Universidade Federal da Paraı́ba, Centro de Cie⁁ncias e Tecnologia, Department of Electrical Engineering, Campina Grande 58109-970, Pb, Brazil

J. Sol. Energy Eng 122(4), 170-175 (Jul 01, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1330542 History: Received September 01, 1999; Revised July 01, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Taylor, J. S., and Jacob, E. P., 1996, Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration in Water Treatment Membrane Processes, J. Mallevialle et al., eds., Mc Graw-Hill, New York.
Milow,  B., and Zarza,  E., 1996, “Advanced MED Solar Desalination Plants. Configurations, Costs, Future—Seven Years of Experience at the Plataforma Solar de Almeida (Spain),” Desalination, 108, 51–58.
Alawaji,  S. H., Smiai,  M. S., Rafique,  S., and Stafford,  B., 1995, “PV-Powered Water Pumping and Desalination Plant for Remote Areas in Saudi-Arabia,” Appl. Energy, 52, 283–289.
Tzen,  E., Perrakis,  K., and Baltas,  P., 1998, “Design of a Stand Alone PV-Desalination System for Rural Areas,” Desalination, 119, 327–334.
Keefer,  B. G., Hembree,  R. D., and Schrack,  F. C., 1985, “Optimized Matching of Solar Photovoltaic Power With Reverse Osmosis Desalination,” Desalination, 54, 89–103.
Amjad, Z., 1993, Reverse Osmosis. Membrane Technology, Water Chemistry and Industrial Applications, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Ho, W. S. W., and Sirkar, K. K., 1992, Membrane Handbook, Chapman & Hall.
Sudak, R. G., 1990, Handbook of Industrial Membrane Technology, Noyel Publications, New Jersey.
World Health Organization, 1984, Guidelines for drinking water quality. Vol. 1, Recommendations, Geneva.
Lonsdale,  H. K., Merten,  U., and Riley,  R. L., 1965, J. Appl. Polymer Sci., 9, 1341.
GP & GF Hill Pty Ltd, http://venwest.iinet.net.au.
Laborde, H. M., França, K. B., Neff, H., and Lima, A. M. N., “Optimization Strategy for a Small-Scale Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination System Based on Solar Energy,” Desalination, in press.

Figures

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Typical flow diagrams of a reverse osmosis desalination system. (a) Single stage, (b) with permeate blending, (c) with concentrate recirculation, (d) combination, permeate blending, and concentrate recirculation.
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Power (kW) and energy (kWh/m3 ) as a function of the total dissolved salts value (ppm), permeate flow=0.3 m3/h,recovery rate=25 percent, for Low Pressure membrane and High Rejection membrane. Pump efficiency η set at 65 percent, motor efficiency at 80 percent.
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Power (kW) and energy (kWh/m3 ) as a function of the total dissolved salts value (ppm), permeate flow=0.3 m3/h, recovery rate=25 percent, for Seawater membrane
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Variation of the applied pressure (bar) as a function of the total dissolved salts value (ppm), permeate flow=0.3 m3/h,recovery rate=25 percent, for the Seawater, High Rejection, and Low Pressure membranes
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Required energy (kWh/m3 ) as a function of the permeate flux (m3 /h), NaCl solution of 3,000 ppm, Low Pressure membrane
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Power (kW) and energy (kWh/m3 ) as a function of the type of membrane. ESPA: Low Pressure membranes, LFC: Low Fouling membranes, CAB: High Rejection membrane, and SWC: Seawater membrane.
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(a) Energy (kWh/m3 ) and (b) permeate concentration (ppm) as a function of the type of ions in a 3,000 ppm solution containing 2,000 ppm of NaCl+1,000 ppm of the specified ion, permeate flow=0.3 m3/h Low Pressure membrane
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Cost (US$) of the potable water produced as a function of the TDS value of the feed water (ppm)
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Cost (US$) of the potable water produced as a function of the duration of sunshine, TDS of the feed solution=3,000 ppm of NaCl, permeate flow=0.3 m3/h Low Pressure membrane
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Required energy (kWh/m3 ) as a function of the pump efficiency (percent) for Low Pressure membrane and Seawater membranes at different TDS values. Motor efficiency has been set in this case at 93 percent

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