A Heat Pump and Thermal Storage System for Solar Heating and Cooling Based on the Reaction of Calcium Chloride and Methanol Vapor

[+] Author and Article Information
P. O’D. Offenhartz, F. C. Brown

EIC Corporation, Newton, MA 02158

R. W. Mar, R. W. Carling

Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550

J. Sol. Energy Eng 102(1), 59-65 (Feb 01, 1980) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3266123 History: Received October 29, 1979; Online November 11, 2009


Thermodynamic, kinetic, heat transfer and mass transfer data are presented on the reaction of CaCl2 and CH3 OH vapor to form solid-phase CaCl2 •2CH3 OH. These data demonstrate the suitability of the reaction for storing solar energy, and for pumping heat, either for use in space heating (at a solar coefficient of performance > 1), air conditioning, or both. CaCl2 reacts with CH3 OH to form CaCl2 •2CH3 OH with an enthalpy and entropy of reaction 51.7 kJ (mole CH3 OH)−1 and 126 J deg−1 (mole CH3 OH)−1 , respectively. Reaction kinetics close to equilibrium are complex, although the reaction is first order when the temperature of the reacting salt is far from equilibrium. Heat transfer through the salt appears to follow the Russel equation, and reaction rates are not limited by mass transfer in a well-designed system. In the heating mode, a solar coefficient of performance (COP) of about 1.6 should be achievable if the entire heat of CH3 OH condensation is used; this could permit a substantial reduction in solar collector area for a given amount of heat delivered to the load. In the cooling mode, the COP should be about 0.6. The system should be capable of pumping heat from an ambient source of 0°C to an indoor air duct temperature above 40°C, or from an indoor chiller at 5°C to an outdoor ambient air sink. The required solar collector temperature is below 140°C, and the energy storage density is about 4 × 105 kJ m−3 .

Copyright © 1980 by ASME
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