0
Research Papers

A New Photovoltaic Arrays Fixed Reconfiguration Method for Reducing Effects of One- and Two-Sided Mutual Shading

[+] Author and Article Information
Majid Horoufiany

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University,
Tehran 1678815811, Iran
e-mail: m.horoufiany@srttu.edu

Reza Ghandhari

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University,
Tehran 1678815811, Iran
e-mail: R_ghandhari@srttu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received July 17, 2017; final manuscript received November 3, 2018; published online November 30, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Geoffrey T. Klise.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 141(3), 031013 (Nov 30, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1295; doi: 10.1115/1.4041930 History: Received July 17, 2017; Revised November 03, 2018

Low distance between photovoltaic (PV) arrays can lead to the mutual shading between them. This can lead to significant power losses. Usually, these shadows can be seen in PV plants with limited land such as buildings' roof. In this paper, a PV arrays fixed reconfiguration method is presented in order to reduce the effects of one- and two-sided mutual shadings in total cross tied (TCT) arrangements. Two-sided mutual shading appears when the array is shaded in two separate areas, while there is only one shaded part in the array in one-sided mutual shading. In this method, the physical locations of the modules are rearranged without changing the electrical interconnections. To reduce the effects of these shadings, first, their important features are explained. Then, the optimal array rearrangement is determined by considering all possible mutual shadows (MSHs). In mutual shading conditions, the obtained arrangement is capable of equally dispersing shaded modules in different array rows, while there is no need to add any additional switches or sensors. Due to this equal dispersion, there is no need to use the bypass diodes for maximum power extraction in this condition. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of this method.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Batzelis, E. I. , Papathanassiou, S. A. , and Georgilakis, P. S. , 2015, “ Energy Models for Photovoltaic Systems Under Partial Shading Conditions: A Comprehensive Review,” IET Renewable Power Gener., 9(4), pp. 340–349. [CrossRef]
Bell, R. , and Pilawa-Podgurski, R. C. N. , 2015, “ Decoupled and Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking of Series-Connected Photovoltaic Submodules Using Differential Power Processing,” IEEE J. Emerging Sel. Top. Power Electron., 3(4), pp. 881–891. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y.-J. , and Hsu, P.-C. , 2010, “ Analytical Modelling of Partial Shading and Different Orientation of Photovoltaic Modules,” IET Renewable Power Gener., 4(3), p. 272. [CrossRef]
Tripathy, M. , Yadav, S. , Sadhu, P. K. , and Panda, S. K. , 2017, “ Determination of Optimum Tilt Angle and Accurate Insolation of BIPV Panel Influenced by Adverse Effect of Shadow,” Renewable Energy, 104, pp. 211–223. [CrossRef]
Nashih, S. K. , Fernandes, C. F. , Torres, J. N. , Gomes, J. , and Costa Branco, P. J. , 2016, “ Validation of a Simulation Model for Analysis of Shading Effects on Photovoltaic Panels,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 138(4), p. 044503. [CrossRef]
Mahmoud, Y. , and El-Saadany, E. F. , 2015, “ A Photovoltaic Model With Reduced Computational Time,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 62(6), pp. 3534–3544.
Silverman, T. J. , Mansfield, L. , Repins, I. , and Kurtz, S. , 2016, “ Damage in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Due to Partial Shade,” IEEE J. Photovolt., 6(5), pp. 1333–1338. [CrossRef]
Rahmann, C. , Vittal, V. , Ascui, J. , and Haas, J. , 2016, “ Mitigation Control Against Partial Shading Effects in Large-Scale PV Power Plants,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, 7(1), pp. 173–180. [CrossRef]
Molenbroek, E. , Waddington, D. W. , and Emery, K. A. , 1991, “ Hot Spot Susceptibility and Testing of PV Modules,” 22nd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Oct. 7–11, pp. 547–552.
Shams El-Dein, M. Z. , Kazerani, M. , and Salama, M. M. A. , 2011, “ Novel Configurations for Photovoltaic Farms to Reduce Partial Shading Losses,” IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Detroit, MI, July 24–29, pp. 1–5.
Uno, M. , and Kukita, A. , 2017, “ Current Sensorless Equalization Strategy for a Single-Switch Voltage Equalizer Using Multi Stacked Buck–Boost Converters for Photovoltaic Modules Under Partial Shading,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 53(1), pp. 420–429. [CrossRef]
Bany, J. , and Appelbaum, J. , 1987, “ The Effect of Shading on the Design of a Field of Solar Collectors,” Sol. Cells, 20(3), pp. 201–228. [CrossRef]
Kerekes, T. , Koutroulis, E. , Séra, D. , Teodorescu, R. , and Katsanevakis, M. , 2013, “ An Optimization Method for Designing Large PV Plants,” IEEE J. Photovolt., 3(2), pp. 814–822. [CrossRef]
Weinstock, D. , and Appelbaum, J. , 2004, “ Optimal Solar Field Design of Stationary Collectors,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 126(3), pp. 898–905. [CrossRef]
Groumpos, P. P. , and Khouzam, K. , 1987, “ A Generic Approach to the Shadow Effect of Large Solar Power Systems,” Sol. Cells, 22(1), pp. 29–46. [CrossRef]
Weinstock, D. , and Appelbaum, J. , 2003, “ Deployment of Collector in an Optimal Design of Solar Fields,” ISES Solar World Congress 2003, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 14–19, pp. 134–139.
Quaschning, V. , and Hanitsch, R. , 1998, “ Increased Energy Yield of 50% at Flat Roof and Field Installations With Optimized Module Structures,” Second World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna, Austria, July 6–10, pp. 1993–1996.
Kaushika, N. D. , and Gautam, N. K. , 2003, “ Energy Yield Simulations of Interconnected Solar PV Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 18(1), pp. 127–134. [CrossRef]
Roman, E. , Alonso, R. , Ibanez, P. , Elorduizapatarietxe, S. , and Goitia, D. , 2006, “ Intelligent PV Module for Grid-Connected PV Systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 53(4), pp. 1066–1073. [CrossRef]
Lijun, G. , Dougal, R. A. , Shengyi, L. , and Iotova, A. P. , 2009, “ Parallel-Connected Solar PV System to Address Partial and Rapidly Fluctuating Shadow Conditions,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 56(5), pp. 1548–1556. [CrossRef]
Shimizu, T. , Hirakata, M. , Kamezawa, T. , and Watanabe, H. , 2001, “ Generation Control Circuit for Photovoltaic Modules,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 16(3), pp. 293–300. [CrossRef]
Busquets-Monge, S. , Rocabert, J. , Rodriguez, P. , Alepuz, S. , and Bordonau, J. , 2008, “ Multilevel Diode-Clamped Converter for Photovoltaic Generators With Independent Voltage Control of Each Solar Array,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 55(7), pp. 2713–2723. [CrossRef]
Karatepe, E. , Hiyama, T. , Boztepe, M. , and Çolak, M. , 2008, “ Voltage Based Power Compensation System for Photovoltaic Generation System Under Partially Shaded Insolation Conditions,” Energy Convers. Manage., 49(8), pp. 2307–2316. [CrossRef]
Elserougi, A. A. , Diab, M. S. , Massoud, A. M. , Abdel-Khalik, A. S. , and Ahmed, S. , 2015, “ A Switched PV Approach for Extracted Maximum Power Enhancement of PV Arrays During Partial Shading,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, 6(3), pp. 767–772. [CrossRef]
Belhaouas, N. , Cheikh, M.-S. A. , Agathoklis, P. , Oularbi, M.-R. , Amrouche, B. , Sedraoui, K. , and Djilali, N. , 2017, “ PV Array Power Output Maximization Under Partial Shading Using New Shifted PV Array Arrangements,” Appl. Energy, 187, pp. 326–337. [CrossRef]
Sahu, H. S. , Nayak, S. K. , and Mishra, S. , 2016, “ Maximizing the Power Generation of a Partially Shaded PV Array,” IEEE J. Emerging Sel. Top. Power Electron., 4(2), pp. 626–637. [CrossRef]
Rani, B. I. , Saravana Ilango, G. , and Nagamani, C. , 2013, “ Enhanced Power Generation From PV Array Under Partial Shading Conditions by Shade Dispersion Using Su Do Ku Configuration,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, 4(3), pp. 594–601. [CrossRef]
Horoufiany, M. , and Ghandehari, R. , 2018, “ Optimization of the Sudoku Based Reconfiguration Technique for PV Arrays Power Enhancement Under Mutual Shading Conditions,” Sol. Energy, 159, pp. 1037–1046. [CrossRef]
Malathy, S. S. , and Ramaprabha, R. R. , 2015, “ Performance Enhancement of Partially Shaded Solar Photovoltaic Array Using Grouping Technique,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 137(3), p. 034505. [CrossRef]
Shams El-Dein, M. Z. , Kazerani, M. , and Salama, M. M. A. , 2013, “ An Optimal Total Cross Tied Interconnection for Reducing Mismatch Losses in Photovoltaic Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, 4(1), pp. 99–107. [CrossRef]
Srinivasa Rao, P. , Saravana Ilango, G. , and Nagamani, C. , 2014, “ Maximum Power From PV Arrays Using a Fixed Configuration Under Different Shading Conditions,” IEEE J. Photovolt., 4(2), pp. 679–686. [CrossRef]
Horoufiany, M. , and Ghandehari, R. , 2017, “ Optimal Fixed Reconfiguration Scheme for PV Arrays Power Enhancement Under Mutual Shading Conditions,” IET Renewable Power Gener., 11(11), pp. 1456–1463. [CrossRef]
Moghadam, H. , and Deymeh, S. M. , 2015, “ Determination of Optimum Location and Tilt Angle of Solar Collector on the Roof of Buildings With Regard to Shadow of Adjacent Neighbors,” Sustainable Cities Soc., 14, pp. 215–222. [CrossRef]
Sahu, H. S. , and Nayak, S. K. , 2016, “ Extraction of Maximum Power From a PV Array Under Non-Uniform Irradiation Conditions,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, 63(12), pp. 4825–4831. [CrossRef]
Romano, P. , and Cardinale, C. R. , 2013, “ Optimization of Photovoltaic Energy Production Through an Efficient Switching Matrix,” J. Sustainable Develop. Energy, Water Environ. Syst., 1(3), pp. 227–236. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

An example of fixed reconfiguration of 3 × 3 PVA

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A rectangular MSH pattern

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Mutual shading: one-sided mutual shading (array 1) and two-sided mutual shading (array 2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Positon of ψiL and λiR in the array

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The optimal arrangement that is obtained by the proposed approach

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Shaded modules dispersion by the proposed scheme and PV curves with and without bypass diodes (w and w/o BD) for a (a) 2 × 4 MSH and (b) 1 × 4 MSH

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Shaded modules dispersion by the proposed scheme and PV curves with and without bypass diodes (w and w/o BD) for two-sided MSH with i = 2, L = 1, R = 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The PE% of the proposed scheme compared with the TCT arrangement for left and right-sided shadings (j: number of shaded columns; i: number of shaded rows)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The arrangements that are used for evaluation: (a) Futoshiki arrangement and (b) dynamic reconfiguration method in Ref. [35]

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In