Intelligent efficiency refers to the use of sensor, control, and communication technologies to gather, manage, interpret, communicate, and act upon disparate and often large volumes of data to improve device, process, facility, or organization performance and achieve energy savings and higher levels of energy efficiency. Intelligent efficiency can be applied in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation—sometimes separately labeled smart homes, smart buildings, smart manufacturing, and smart transportation. In commercial buildings, intelligent efficiency often involves a sophisticated building or facility energy management system and extensive sensors and software algorithms to better optimize performance. For example, a 2013 study identified 13% average energy savings from these strategies in three large buildings that were already considered efficient—qualified or nearly qualified for Energy Star designation . And in the long-term, Rogers et al. have identified opportunities for energy use reductions of 35–50% for major commercial building end-uses such as lighting, HVAC, and office equipment .