Accepted Manuscripts

Bencherif Mohamed and Brahmi Badr -eddine Nabil
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4038620
This work describes a new simple and effective method to extract the loss parameters of a solar panels (solar cells) and able to accurately represent their electrical behavior. This approach allows the extraction of the parameters of the single diode model using only the information provided by the manufacturer's data sheet. The proposed method presents a computational procedure of low complexity, which makes it possible to estimate the five parameters of any photovoltaic or generator cell. Using the complete equation of the single diode model, the number of parameters to be calculated is reduced only to two parameters by an equation exclusively connecting the series resistance and the diode current. Suitable validations on important case studies are presented, an experimental data from multi-crystalline MSX120 and thin film NA-F135 solar panels were used to test the single diode model. The experimental data are first collected at the same temperature at two different irradiances levels and at low irradiance level at a fixed temperature for MSX120. In the second stage, variations in temperature are considered at different irradiance level for NA-F135. The extraction results show that the I-V curves accurately fit the entire range of the experimental data. The results of the proposed procedure are compared to the most recent proposed techniques in literature. Furthermore, the results obtained show a highly accurate; in particular, at maximum power point the error is always less than 0.005%, which is quite far of the authorized error of 1%.
TOPICS: Solar energy, Temperature, Errors, Generators, Solar cells, Thin films
Zhang Heng, Liu Haowen, Chen Haiping, Guo Xinxin, Liang Kai and Yao Pengbo
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4038621
Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector is a novel collector which incorporates photovoltaic power generation and low temperature heat utilization of solar energy. Based on the three-dimensional physical model of flat-box PV/T collector established in Fluent, the energy conversion and heat transfer process are simulated by CFD software. This paper analyzes and compares the effect of different tube heights, flow rates, inlet temperature, wind speed and ambient temperature on the performance of the collector. By analyzing and comparing the simulated and experimental results, the thermal and electric efficiencies of the collector and temperature distributions on each solar cell under different flow rates were obtained.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Heat, Temperature, Heat transfer, Cooling, Wind velocity, Energy conversion, Computational fluid dynamics, Low temperature, Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Computer software, Solar cells, Temperature distribution
Ali Durusu and Ali Erduman
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4038589
A secure and reliable supply of energy is important for economic stability and even in social life. Increasing human population, industrialization, and rising living standards lead to increased electrical energy demand. Uncertainties in oil prices, shortage of fossil fuel reserves and environmental pollution from conventional fuels leads solar energy as an alternative resource for electricity production. The share of installed PV capacity as a percent of total installed power generating capacity is increasing every year. In this study, an improved methodology to design large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plant is proposed. The proposed methodology is performed for designing optimal configurations of PV power plants. The design methodology is performed using commercially available PV modules and inverters. In addition, solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed, shadow effect, location and shape of plant field are taken into consideration as input parameters. The alternatives and parameters are evaluated with the purpose of minimizing the levelized cost of generated electricity (LCOE). The methodology, includes the use of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for determining the optimal number of PV modules and inverters, optimum tilt angle of PV modules, required installation area for the plant and optimum cable cross-section and lengths. In the paper, the methodology is implemented and case studies and results using PVSyst software for the same case studies, are compared with each other.
TOPICS: Power stations, Design, Design methodology, Stability, Temperature, Solar radiation, Fuels, Wind velocity, Cables, Shades and shadows, Solar energy, Computer software, Fossil fuels, Genetic algorithms, Shapes, Pollution, Uncertainty
Dhiraj Magare, O.S Sastry, Rajesh Gupta, Birinchi Bora, Yogesh Singh and Humaid Mohammed
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4038590
The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules in outdoor field conditions is adversely affected by the rise in module operating temperature. Wind flow around the module affects its temperature significantly, which ultimately influences module output power. In this paper, a new approach has been presented, for module temperature estimation of different technology PV modules (amorphous Si, hetero-junction with intrinsic thin-layer and multi-crystalline Si) installed at the site of National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE), India. The model based on presented approach incorporates the effect of wind speed along with wind direction, while considering in-plane irradiance, ambient temperature and module efficiency parameters. For all the technology modules, results have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively under different wind situations. Qualitative analysis based on the trend of module temperature variation under different wind speed and wind direction along with irradiance and ambient temperature has been presented in detail from experimental data. Quantitative results obtained from presented model showed good agreement with experimentally measured data for different technology modules. The model based on presented approach showed marked improvement in results with high consistency, in comparison with other models analyzed for different technology modules installed at the site. The improvement was very significant in case of multi-crystalline Si technology modules, which is most commonly used and highly temperature sensitive technology. Presented work can be used for estimating the effect of wind on different technology PV modules and for prediction of module temperature, which affects the performance and reliability of PV modules.
TOPICS: Temperature, Modeling, Wind, Wind velocity, Reliability, Solar energy, Junctions, Operating temperature, Flow (Dynamics)
Ali Al-Shetwi and Muhamad Zahim Sujod
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4038591
High penetration of photovoltaic (PV) power plants to the grid requires reliable PV generation system by achieving fault-ride through (FRT) requirements. In order to meet these requirements, there are two major issues should be addressed to keep the inverter connected during grid fault. The two issues are the ac over-current and dc-link over-voltage that may cause disconnection or damage to the grid inverter. In this paper, the control of single-stage PV power plant inverter is developed to address these issues and enhance FRT capability. The proposed control scheme introduces the dc-chopper brake circuit and current limiter to protect the inverter and ride-through the fault smoothly with no perceptible overcompensation. A case study of a 1.5-MW PV power-plant-connected into Malaysian grid simulated in Simulink is utilized to explain the proposed control. The simulation results presented demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall proposed control strategy to ride-through different types of faults and helping to ensure the safety of the system equipment.
TOPICS: Safety, Power stations, Circuits, Helicopters, Photovoltaic power systems, Simulation results, Control modeling, Brakes, Damage

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