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research-article  
Dr. Clifford K. Ho, Matthew Carlson, Kevin Albrecht, Zhiwen Ma, Sheldon Jeter and Clayton Nguyen
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042225
This paper presents an evaluation of alternative particle heat-exchanger designs, including moving packed-bed and fluidized-bed designs, for high-temperature heating of a solar-driven supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton power cycle. The design requirements for high pressure (= 20 MPa) and high temperature (= 700 °C) operation associated with sCO2 posed several challenges requiring high-strength materials for piping and/or diffusion bonding for plates. Designs from several vendors for a 100 kW-thermal particle-to-sCO2 heat exchanger were evaluated as part of this project. Cost, heat-transfer coefficient, structural reliability, manufacturability, parasitics and heat losses, scalability, compatibility, erosion and corrosion, transient operation, and inspection ease were considered in the evaluation. An analytical hierarchy process was used to weight and compare the criteria for the different design options. The fluidized-bed design fared the best on heat transfer coefficient, structural reliability, scalability and inspection ease, while the moving packed-bed designs fared the best on cost, parasitics and heat losses, manufacturability, compatibility, erosion and corrosion, and transient operation. A 100 kWt shell-and-plate design was ultimately selected for construction and integration with Sandia's falling particle receiver system.
TOPICS: Particulate matter, Heat exchangers, High temperature, Design, Erosion, Inspection, Fluidized beds, Heat losses, Reliability, Transients (Dynamics), Corrosion, Weight (Mass), Heat transfer, Construction, Diffusion bonding (Metals), High pressure (Physics), Shells, Heating, Heat transfer coefficients, Pipes, Plates (structures), Solar energy, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Thermodynamic power cycles
research-article  
Mostafa Abuseada, Cedric Ophoff and Nesrin Ozalp
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042246
This paper presents characterization of a new high flux solar simulator consisting of a 10 kW Xenon arc via indirect heat flux mapping technique for solar thermochemical applications. The method incorporates the use of a heat flux gauge, single Lambertian target, CMOS camera, and three-axis optical alignment assembly. The grayscale values are correlated to heat flux values for faster optimization and characterization of the radiation source. Unlike previous work in heat flux characterization that rely on two Lambertian targets, this study implements the use of a single target to eliminate possible errors due to interchanging the targets. The current supplied to the simulator was varied within the range of 12015-200 A to change the total power and to mimic the fluctuation in sun's irradiance. Several characteristic parameters of the simulator were studied; including the temporal instability and radial non-uniformity. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed on the number of images captured, which showed a threshold value of at least 320 images for essentially accurate results. The results showed that the flux distribution obtained on a 10 cm x 10 cm2 target had a peak flux of 4430 6990 kWm-2, total power of 3.496 kW, and half width of 6.9.125 mm. The study concludes with the illustration and use of a new technique, the merging method, that allows characterization of heat flux distributions on larger areas, which is a promising addition to the present heat flux characterization techniques.
TOPICS: Radiation (Physics), Solar energy, Heat flux, Gages, Errors, Sensitivity analysis, Manufacturing, Complementary metal oxide semiconductors, Radiation sources, Optimization
research-article  
Stefan Brendelberger, Philipp Holzemer-Zerhusen, Henrik von Storch and Christian Sattler
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042241
The most advanced solar thermochemical cycles in terms of demonstrated reactor efficiencies are based on temperature swing operated receiver-reactors with open porous ceria foams as redox material. While the demonstrated efficiencies are encouraging but especially for cycles based on ceria as redox material studies have pointed out the importance for high solid heat recovery rates to reach competitive process efficiencies. Different concepts for solid heat recovery have been proposed mainly for other types of reactors and demonstration campaigns have shown first advances. Still, solid heat recovery remains an unsolved challenge. In this study chances and limitations for solid heat recovery using a thermal storage unit and gas as heat transfer fluid are assessed. A numerical model for the reactor is presented and used to analyze the performance of a storage unit in combination with the reactor. The results show that such a concept could recover up to 40% of the heat of the redox material and should be further analyzed.
TOPICS: Heat recovery, Cycles, Storage, Thermal energy storage, Solar energy, Heat, Temperature, Heat transfer, Fluids, Foams (Chemistry), Computer simulation
research-article  
Christos Agrafiotis, Mathias Pein, Dimitra Giasafaki, Stefania Tescari, Martin Roeb and Christian Sattler
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042226
Ca-Mn-based perovskites doped in their A- and B-site were synthesized and comparatively tested vs. the Co3O4/CoO and (Mn,Fe)2O3/(Mn,Fe)3O4 redox pairs with respect to thermochemical storage and oxygen pumping capability, as a function of the kind and extent of dopant. The perovskites' induced heat effects measured via Differential Scanning Calorimetry are substantially lower: the highest reaction enthalpy recorded by the CaMnO3-d composition was only 14.84 KJ/kg compared to 461.1 KJ/kg for Co3O4/CoO and 161.0 KJ/kg for (Mn,Fe)2O3/(Mn,Fe)3O4. Doping of Ca with increasing content of Sr decreased these heat effects; more than 20 at.% Sr eventually eliminated them. Perovskites with Sr instead of Ca in the A-site exhibited also negligible heat effects, irrespective of the kind of B site cation. On the contrary, perovskite compositions characterized by high oxygen release/uptake can operate as thermochemical oxygen pumps enhancing the performance of water/carbon dioxide splitting materials. Oxygen pumping via Ca0.9Sr0.1MnO3-d and SrFeO3-d doubled and tripled respectively, the total oxygen absorbed by ceria during its re-oxidation vs. that absorbed without their presence. Such effective pumping compositions exhibited practically no shrinkage during one heat-up/cool-down cycle. However, they demonstrated an increase of the coefficient of linear expansion due to the superposition of "chemical expansion" to thermal-only one, the effect of which on the long-term dimensional stability has to be further quantified through extended cyclic operation.
TOPICS: Heat exchangers, Solar energy, Storage, Oxygen, Heat, Shrinkage (Materials), Pumps, Carbon dioxide, Cycles, Differential scanning calorimetry, Enthalpy, oxidation, Stability, Water
research-article  
Clemens Suter, Antoine Meouchi, Gaël Levêque and Dr. Sophia Haussener
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042227
The reconstruction of the angular and spatial intensity distribution from radiative flux maps measured in high flux solar simulators or optical concentrators is an ill-posed inverse problem. We provided a solution strategy for the determination of intensity distributions of arbitrarily complicated concentrating facilities. The approach consists of the inverse reconstruction of the intensities from multiple radiative flux maps recorded at positions around the focal plane. The approach was validated by three test cases including uniform spatial, Gaussian spatial, and uniform angular distribution for which we successfully predicted the intensity for a target with length of 0.5 m and for a displacement range spanning 10 cm at a resolution of 3.2·106 elements, yielding relative errors between 19.8 - 26.4% and 15.7 - 25.6% using Tikhonov regularization and the conjugate gradient least square method, respectively. The latter method showed superior performance and was used at a resolution of 20·106 elements to analyze EPFL's high flux solar simulator comprising 18 lamps. The inverse solution for a single lamp retrieved from experimental and measured data showed peak intensities of 13.7 MW/m2/sr and 16.0 MW/m2/sr, respectively, with a relative error of 81.1%. The inverse reconstruction of the entire simulator resulted in a maximum intensity of 18.8 MW/m2/sr with a relative error of 80%. The inverse method proved to provide reasonable intensity predictions with limited resolution of details imposed by the high gradients in the radiative flux maps.
TOPICS: Resolution (Optics), Solar energy, Displacement, Errors, Inverse problems
research-article  
Sha Li, Peter Kreider, Vincent Wheeler and Wojciech Lipinski
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042228
A thermodynamic model of an isothermal ceria-based membrane reactor system is developed for fuel production via solar-driven simultaneous reduction and oxidation reactions. Inert sweep gas is applied on the reduction side of the membrane. The model is based on conservation of mass, species and energy along the Gibbs criterion. The maximum thermodynamic solar-to-fuel efficiencies are determined by simultaneous multivariable optimization of operational parameters. The effects of gas heat recovery and reactor flow configurations are investigated. The results show that maximum efficiencies of 1.3% and 0.76% are attainable for water splitting under counter- and parallel-flow configurations, respectively, at an operating temperature of 1900 K and 95% gas heat recovery effectiveness. In addition, insights on potential efficiency improvement for the membrane reactor system are further suggested. The efficiencies reported are found to be much lower than those reported in literature. We demonstrate that the thermodynamic models reported elsewhere can violate the Gibbs criterion and, as a result, lead to unrealistically high efficiencies. The present work offers enhanced understanding of the counter-flow membrane reactor and provides more accurate upper efficiency limits for membrane reactor systems.
TOPICS: Solar energy, Nuclear reactors, Membranes, Fuels, Flow (Dynamics), Heat recovery, Optimization, oxidation, Water, Operating temperature
research-article  
Kangjae Lee and Jonathan Scheffe
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042229
Please see the submitted draft file for the abstract.
TOPICS: Lasers, Raman spectroscopy, Solar energy, Cycles, Heating
research-article  
Della Ceca Lara Sofia, Micheletti Maria I, Freire Martin, Garcia Beatriz, Mancilla Alexis, Salum Graciela M, Cinó Edgar and Piacentini Ruben D
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042203
The installation of solar power plants is currently having a notable expansion. The results presented show that the Argentinean Andes range, from the central to northern latitudes, is an excellent region for the placement of these plants, due to the sum of different positive factors: very high mean annual solar irradiation, low ambient temperature and relative humidity, low precipitable water content, normal wind speeds and extremely low aerosol content of the atmosphere. The proposed regions are nearby San Antonio de los Cobres and El Leoncito, and are compared with two important locations where large solar power plants have been (or will be) built: a site in Africa (Ouarzazate, Morocco) and one in Asia (Dubai, Arab Emirates). We present results of the possible production of electricity, supplying a total of about 23930 GWh, which is 17.8% of the 2015 Argentinean electric consumption and, consequently, could reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in a total mass of 12.8 million tons of CO2eq. The installation of this type of renewable power plants, will contribute significantly to the Argentinean population due to frequent (mainly summer) cutoff of electric power supply and, in particular, to isolated (low income) populations leaving in the Argentinean Andes range.
TOPICS: Solar energy, Solar power stations, Water, Emissions, Renewable energy, Temperature, Electricity (Physics), Gases, Aerosols, Wind velocity, Irradiation (Radiation exposure)
research-article  
Manuel J. Blanco Muriel, Marios Constantinou, Clotilde Corsi, Victor Grigoriev, Kypros Milidonis, Constantinos F. Panagiotou, Costas N. Papanicolas, John D. Pye and Evgeny Votyakov
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042127
This paper presents FluxTracer, an advanced open source computer tools to assist in the analysis, design and optimization of solar concentrators and receivers. FluxTracer is a post-processor for Monte Carlo ray tracers used to simulate the optical behavior of solar concentrating systems. By post-processing the rays generated by the ray tracer, FluxTracer can partition into volumetric pixels (voxels) a region of interest in three-dimensional space defined by the user and compute for each voxel the radiant power density of the concentrated solar radiation. Depending upon the set of rays provided by the ray tracer, it may be able to integrate the radiant power density in every voxel over time. The radiant energy density analysis described is just one of the analysis that FluxTracer can carry out on the set of rays generated by the ray tracer. This article presents the main analyses that FluxTracer can provide. It also presents examples of how the information provided by FluxTracer can be used to assist in the analysis, design and optimization of solar concentrators and receivers. FluxTracer is the first of a series of components of an open-source computational framework for the analysis, design and optimization of solar concentrators and receiver, being developed by The Cyprus Institute (CYI) and the Australian National University (ANU).
TOPICS: Design, Optimization, Solar energy concentrators, Power density, Density, Solar radiation, Solar energy, Computers
research-article  
Gregory S. Jackson, Luca Imponenti, Kevin Albrecht, Daniel Miller and Robert J. Braun
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042128
Oxide particles have potential as robust heat transfer and thermal energy storage (TES) media for concentrating solar power (CSP). Particles of low-cost, inert oxides such as alumina and/or silica offer an effective, non-corrosive means of storing sensible energy at temperatures above 1000 deg. C. However, for TES subsystems coupled to high-efficiency, supercritical-CO2 cycles with low temperature differences for heat addition, the limited specific TES (in kJ/kg) of inert oxides requires large mass flow rates for capture and total mass for storage. Alternatively, reactive oxides may provide higher specific energy storage (approaching 2 or more times the inert oxides) through adding endothermic reduction. Chemical energy storage through reduction can benefit from low oxygen partial pressures (PO2) sweep-gas flows that add complexity, cost, and balance of plant loads to the TES subsystem. This paper compares reactive oxides, with a focus on Sr-doped CaMnO3 perovskites, to low-cost alumina-silica particles for energy capture and storage media in CSP applications. For solar energy capture, an indirect particle receiver based on a narrow-channel, counterflow fluidized bed provides a framework for comparing the inert and reactive particles as a heat transfer media. Low-PO2 sweep gas flows for promoting reduction impact the techno-economic viability of TES subsystems based on reactive perovskites relative to those using inert oxide particles. This paper provides insights as to when reactive perovskites may be advantageous for TES subsystems in next-generation CSP plants.
TOPICS: Particulate matter, Thermal energy, Concentrating solar power, Storage, High temperature, Flow (Dynamics), Heat, Temperature, Heat transfer, Cycles, Fluidized beds, Oxygen, Chemical energy, Stress, Gas flow, Heat transfer media, Energy storage, Low temperature, Solar energy, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Thermal energy storage
research-article  
Richard J. Carrillo, Kent J. Warren and Jonathan Scheffe
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042088
Note, please see the submitted draft for the abstract. The abstract word count exceeds that which is allowable by this submission window.
TOPICS: Metals, Fuels, Solar energy
research-article  
Silvan Siegrist, Henrik von Storch, Martin Roeb and Christian Sattler
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042069
Three crucial aspects still to be overcome to achieve commercial competitiveness of the solar thermochemical production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide are recuperating the heat from the solid phase, achieving continuous or on-demand production beyond the hours of sunshine, and scaling to commercial plant sizes. To tackle all three aspects we propose a Moving Brick Receiver-Reactor (MBR2) design with a solid-solid heat exchanger. The MBR2 consists of porous bricks that are reversibly mounted on a high temperature transport mechanism, a receiver-reactor where the bricks are reduced by passing through the concentrated solar radiation, a solid-solid heat exchanger under partial vacuum in which the reduced bricks transfer heat to the oxidized bricks, a first storage for the reduced bricks, an oxidation reactor, and a second storage for the oxidized bricks. The bricks may be made of any nonvolatile redox material suitable for a thermochemical two-step water or carbon dioxide splitting cycle. A first thermodynamic analysis shows that the MBR2 may be able to achieve solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies of approximately 0.25. Additionally, we identify the desired operating conditions and show that the heat exchanger efficiency has to be higher than the fraction of recombination in order to increase the conversion efficiency.
TOPICS: Bricks, Carbon, Heat exchangers, Solar energy, Process design, Hydrogen, Storage, Heat, Solar radiation, Vacuum, Design, Carbon dioxide, Cycles, Sunlight, Water, High temperature, oxidation
research-article  
Shantanu Purohit, Madhwesh N, K Vasudeva Karanth and N Yagnesh Sharma
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042071
This study presents an innovative idea to augment heat transfer to an air heater using helicoidal finned arrangement. A parametric analysis of the helicoidal fin is considered with helicoidal pitch ratio of 0.1666 to 0.3, fin diameter ratio of 1.75 to 2. For the placement of the fin beneath the absorber plate, longitudinal pitch ratio ranging from 0.0416 to 0.1666 are used. The flow Reynolds number used for the study ranges from 4,800 to 25,000. The effects of helicoidal pitch ratio, wire diameter ratio and longitudinal pitch ratio on Nusselt number and friction factor have been discussed. There is a significant improvement in Nusselt number for the case of helicoidal fin of wire diameter ratio of 1 when compared to base model as well as straight fin model for the operating range of Reynolds number. It is also observed from the analysis that for the helicoidal fin configuration of helicoidal pitch ratio of 0.2333, friction factor appears to be moderate. Flow and roughness parameters for roughened solar air heater have been optimized using thermal-hydraulic enhancement factor. The study reveals that by the use of helicoidal fins, maximum enhancement in the Nusselt number is found to be 2.21 times when compared to the base model for longitudinal pitch ratio of 0.0416, helicoidal pitch ratio of 0.166 for a fixed wire diameter. The improvement obtained in performance establishes the efficacy the helicoidal fin design for the absorber plate
TOPICS: Heat transfer, Computational fluid dynamics, Solar energy, Wire, Reynolds number, Flow (Dynamics), Friction, Surface roughness, Design, Fins
research-article  
Mohammad Abutayeh, Kwangkook Jeong, Anas Alazzam and Bashar Khasawneh
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042064
A scheme to streamline the electric power generation profile of concentrating solar power plants of the parabolic trough collector type is suggested. The scheme seeks to even out heat transfer rates from the solar field to the power block by splitting the typical heat transfer fluid loop into two loops using an extra vessel and an extra pump. In the first loop, cold heat transfer fluid is pumped by the cold pump from the cold vessel to the solar field to collect heat before accumulating in the newly introduced hot vessel. In the second loop, hot heat transfer fluid is pumped by the hot pump from the hot vessel to a heat exchanger train to supply the power block with its heat load before accumulating in the cold vessel. The new scheme moderately decouples heat supply from heat sink allowing for more control of the heat delivery rates.
TOPICS: Energy generation, Concentrating solar power, Vessels, Heat, Heat transfer, Fluids, Pumps, Solar energy, Heat exchangers, Stress, Electric power generation, Heat sinks, Trains, Parabolic troughs
research-article  
Stefan Zoller, Erik Koepf, Philipp Roos and Aldo Steinfeld
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042059
This work reports on the development of a transient heat transfer model of a solar receiver-reactor designed for thermochemical redox cycling by temperature and pressure swing of pure cerium dioxide in the form of a reticulated porous ceramic (RPC). To analyse the performance of the solar reactor and to gain insight into improved design and operational conditions, a transient heat transfer model of the solar reactor for a solar radiative input power of 50 kW during the reduction step was developed and implemented in ANSYS CFX. The numerical model couples the incoming concentrated solar radiation using Monte-Carlo ray tracing, incorporates the reduction chemistry by assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, and accounts for internal radiation heat transfer inside the porous ceria by applying effective heat transfer properties. The model was experimentally validated using data acquired in a high-flux solar simulator, where temperature evolution and oxygen production results from model and experiment agreed well. The numerical results indicate the prominent influence of solar radiative input power, where increasing it substantially reduces reduction time of the cerium dioxide structure. Consequently, the model predicts a solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency of > 6% at a solar radiative power input of 50 kW; efficiency > 10% can be obtained provided the RPC macro porosity is substantially increased and better volumetric absorption and uniform heating is achieved. Managing the ceria surface temperature during reduction to avoid sublimation is a critical design consideration for direct absorption solar receiver-reactors.
TOPICS: Heat transfer, Solar energy, Temperature, Absorption, Transient heat transfer, Design, Heating, Chemistry, Oxygen, Porosity, Ray tracing, Equilibrium (Physics), Energy conversion, Pressure, Solar radiation, Ceramics, Radiation (Physics), Fuels, Computer simulation
research-article  
Zhiwen Ma and Janna Martinek
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042058
This paper introduces a chemical-looping configuration integrated with a concentrating solar thermal (CST) system. The CST system uses an array of mirrors to focus sunlight, and the concentrated solar flux is applied onto a solar receiver to collect and convert solar energy into thermal energy. The thermal energy then drives a thermal power cycle for electricity generation or provides an energy source to chemical processes for material or fuel production. Considerable interest in CST has been driven by power generation with its capability to store thermal energy for continuous electricity supply or peak shaving. However, CST systems have other potentials to convert solar energy into fuel or support thermochemical processes. This paper introduces a concept of a chemical-looping configuration integrated with the CST system that has potential applications for thermochemical energy storage or solar thermochemical hydrogen production. The chemical-looping configuration integrated with a CST system consists of a solar receiver reactor for solar energy collection and conversion, thermochemical energy storage, reverse reactor for energy release, and system circulation. This paper describes a high-temperature reactor receiver that is a key component in the chemical-looping system. The paper shows the solar receiver design and its performance analyzed by solar-tracing and thermal-modeling methods for integration within a CST system.
TOPICS: Solar energy, Thermal systems, Thermal energy, Energy storage, Fuels, Modeling, Design, Energy generation, Energy resources, Cycles, Electric power generation, Hydrogen production, Mirrors, Sunlight, High temperature, Chemical processes
research-article  
Andrey Gunawan, Richard A. Simmons, Megan W. Haynes, Daniel Moreno, Akanksha Krishnakumar Menon, Marta Hatzell and Shannon K. Yee
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042061
For many decades, integration of concentrated solar power (CSP) and desalination relied solely on the use of conventional steam Rankine cycles with thermally based desalination technologies. However, CSP research focus is shifting toward the use of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles due to the significant improvement in thermal efficiencies. Here, we present a techno-economic study that compares the generated power and freshwater produced from a CSP system operated with a Rankine and Brayton cycle. Such a study facilitates co-analysis of the costs of producing both electricity and water among other trade-off assessments. To minimize the levelized cost of water (LCOW), a desalination facility utilizing multi-effect distillation with thermal vapor compression (MED/TVC) instead of multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) is most suitable. The techno-economic analysis reveals that in areas where water production is crucial to be optimized, although LCOE values are lowest for wet-cooled RCBR with MSF (12.1 cents/kWhe) and MED/TVC (12.4 cents/kWhe), there is only a 0.35 cents/kWhe increase for dry-cooled RCBR with MED/TVC to a cost of 12.8 cents/kWhe. This suggests that the best candidate for optimizing water production while minimizing both LCOW and LCOE is dry-cooled RCBR with MED/TVC desalination.
TOPICS: Combined heat and power, Concentrating solar power, Water, Brayton cycle, Rankine cycle, Compression, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Tradeoffs, Thermal efficiency, Steam, Vapors
research-article  
Hermes Chirino and Ben Xu
J. Sol. Energy Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4042060
Compared to Solar Photovoltaics (PV), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) can store excessive solar thermal energy, extend the power generation, and levelize the mismatch between the demand and supply. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system filled with phase change material (PCM) is a key to make CSP competitive, and it is also a promising indirect energy storage technique. It is of great interests to the solar thermal engineering community to apply the latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) system for large scale CSP application, because PCMs can store more energy due to the latent heat during the melting/freezing process. Therefore, a comprehensive parametric analysis of LHTES system is necessary in order to identify the most sensitive ranges of various parameters to design the LHTES system with better systematic performances. In this study, unlike the existing parametric study based on dimensional parameters, we aimed to provide a more general analysis using dimensionless parameters, therefore an 11-dimensionless-parameter space of LHTES system was developed, by considering the technical constraints (materials properties and operation parameters), instead of economic constraints. The parametric study and sensitivity analysis were then performed based on a 1D enthalpy-based transient model, and the energy storage efficiency was used as the objective function to minimize the number of variables in the parameter space. It was found that Stanton number (St), dimensionless PCM radius (r/D), and void fraction (e) are the three most important dimensionless parameters.
TOPICS: Concentrating solar power, Latent heat, Thermal energy storage, Solar energy, Phase change materials, Energy storage, Photovoltaics, Design, Energy generation, Freezing, Melting, Transients (Dynamics), Materials properties, Solar thermal power, Enthalpy, Thermal engineering, Porosity, Sensitivity analysis

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