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Research Papers

Nonlinear Control of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines for Generator Torque Limiting and Power Optimization

[+] Author and Article Information
B. Boukhezzar

Automatic Control Department, Supélec, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91192 Cedex, Franceboubekeur.boukhezzar@greyc.ensicaen.fr

H. Siguerdidjane

Automatic Control Department, Supélec, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91192 Cedex, Francehouria.siguerdidjane@supelec.fr

M. Maureen Hand

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Wind Technology Center, 1617 Cole Blvd., MS 3811, Golden, CO 80401

J. Sol. Energy Eng 128(4), 516-530 (Aug 14, 2006) (15 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2356496 History: Received March 13, 2006; Revised August 14, 2006

To maximize wind power extraction, a variable-speed wind turbine (VSWT) should operate as close as possible to its optimal power coefficient. The generator torque is used as a control input to improve wind energy capture by forcing the wind turbine (WT) to stay close to the maximum energy point. In general, current control techniques do not take into account the dynamical and stochastic aspect of both turbine and wind, leading to significant power losses. In addition, they are not robust with respect to disturbances. In order to address these weaknesses, a nonlinear approach, without wind speed measurement for VSWT control, is proposed. Nonlinear static and dynamic state feedback controllers with wind speed estimator are then derived. The controllers were tested with a WT simple mathematical model and are validated with an aeroelastic wind turbine simulator in the presence of disturbances and measurement noise. The results have shown better performance in comparison with existing controllers.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Wind turbine dynamics

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Figure 2

Aerodynamic power and torque coefficients curves

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Figure 3

ATF control scheme

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Figure 4

ISC control scheme

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Figure 5

Nonlinear dynamic state feedback with estimator controller scheme

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Figure 7

Nonlinear dynamic state feedback control, with estimator: rotor speed responses

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Figure 8

Nonlinear dynamic state feedback control, with estimator: generator torque responses

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Figure 9

Nonlinear dynamic state feedback controller, with estimator: wind turbine power

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Figure 10

Wind speed estimation

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Figure 11

Nonlinear static and dynamic state feedback controller, with estimator: rotor speed responses with FAST

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Figure 12

Nonlinear static and dynamic state feedback controller, with estimator: generator torque responses with FAST

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Figure 13

Nonlinear static and dynamic state feedback controller, with estimator: wind turbine power with FAST

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Figure 14

Electrical power and low speed shaft torque using the different control strategies

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Figure 6

Wind speed profile of 7m∙s−1 mean value

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